Welcome!

Linux Containers Authors: Liz McMillan, Aater Suleman, Robin Miller, Carmen Gonzalez, Flint Brenton

Related Topics: Linux Containers

Linux Containers: Blog Post

Create Linux User Login Monitor on Monitis

Monitis provides the ability to monitor almost any operation on your server

Monitis provides the ability to monitor almost any operation on your server.  Using simple Linux tools and scripts you are able to monitor each time a user logs into the server and capture various information, including username, host address and login service.  Using pam_script and bash scripts, you are able to transmit information to a Custom Monitor with this information.

API Access

The first thing you will need in order to create this monitor is the Monitis API Key and Secret Key.  The API Key is a alphanumeric code that allows you to access the Monitis API url’s and transmit or receive data about your Monitis services.  The Secret Key is an alphanumeric code that allows you to digitally sign your information to ensure that only you can transmit data to your Monitis account.  Your API Key may be disclosed to anyone, but your Secret Key must be maintained private and should not be shared nor transmitted.  To obtain your Monitis API Key and Secret Key, log into your account and from the top menu bar, go to Tools then API then API Key, it will display both your API Key and your Secret Key.

Now let’s test your API access.  You should be able to connect and get an Auth Token:

curl 'http://www.monitis.com/api?action=authToken&apikey=[API Key]&secretkey=[Secret Key]&version=2'

In the above command you should replace [API Key] and [Secret Key] with your API Key and Secret Key.  We are using curl in order to connect to http://www.monitis.com and access the API to get a Auth Token.  The return value is json and sends back something similar to:

{"authToken":"3TVQN32TIP1DN71OB4GOML1D7N"}

Where the alphanumeric code will be your Auth Token.  You can use your Auth Token to validate against the API later.   However sending your Secret Key is not extremely secure, others could possibly  obtain your Secret Key this way.  The more secure method of authenticating is to send your data using POST instead of GET and using a Base64-encoded RFC 2104-compliant HMAC signature to sign the post data.  The signature is sent in the checksum parameter of the POST data.  To calculate the checksum you must follow these rules:
  1. sort all parameters alphabetically by name (excluding the checksum parameter)
  2. concat all parameter names and values like this: name1value1name2value2…
  3. create Base64-encoded RFC 2104-compliant HMAC signature using Secret Key

The final rule can be calculated using openssl:

echo -en “name1value1name2value2” | openssl dgst -sha1 -hmac [Secret Key] -binary | openssl enc -base64

Creating a Custom Monitor

In order to create a custom monitor, you must send a POST request to the API.  This POST request must contain several parameters: action, name, resultsParams, and tag (refer to http://monitis.com/api/api.html#addCustomMonitor for specifications).  We will use the following specifications for the params:

  • action=addMonitor
  • name=Login Monitor
  • resultsParam=user_login:Login Name:logins:3;host:Host Address:hostaddress:3;srv:Service:service:3
  • tag=loginMonitor

There is other necessary information in order to communicate with the API:

  • apikey=[API Key]
  • timestamp=[Current UTC time]
  • version=2
In order to create our new monitor called Login Monitor we would post this data plus a checksum to http://monitis.com/customMonitorApi which is the Custom Monitor API url.  Here is a simple script that will accomplish this:

#!/bin/bash
# create a Custom Monitor for Monitis
# Be sure to modify the API Key and Secret Key
ACTION="addMonitor"
APIKEY="[API Key]"
NAME="login monitor"
RESULTPARAMS="user_login:Login Name:logins:3;host:Host Address:hostaddress:3;srv:Service:service:3"
TAG="loginMonitor"
TIMESTAMP=`date -u +"%F %T"`
VERSION="2"
SECRETKEY="[Secret Key]"
URL="http://monitis.com/customMonitorApi"

# Create Checksum
CHECKSUM_STR="action"$ACTION"apikey"$APIKEY"name"$NAME"resultParams"$RESULTPARAMS"tag"$ TAG"timestamp"$TIMESTAMP"version"$VERSION
CHECKSUM=$(echo -en $CHECKSUM_STR | openssl dgst -sha1 -hmac $SECRETKEY -binary | openssl enc -base64 )

# Post Data to API
POSTDATA="--data-urlencode \"action="$ACTION"\" --data-urlencode \"apikey="$APIKEY"\" --data-urlencode \"name="$NAME"\" --data-urlencode \"resultParams="$RESULTPARAMS"\" --data-urlencode \"tag="$TAG"\" --data-urlencode \"timestamp=$TIMESTAMP\" --data-urlencode \"version="$VERSION"\" --data-urlencode \"checksum="$CHECKSUM"\""

eval "curl ${POSTDATA} $URL"

Save the above script into a file called monitis_create_monitor.sh, be sure not to change the order of the variables in the checksum calculation as they must be in alphabetical order.  Ensure to make this file executable:

chmod 755 monitis_create_monitor.sh

Now run it:
./monitis_create_monitor.sh

The output should look similar to this:

{"status":"ok","data":305}

This is showing us that the monitor was successfully created and that the id of the resulting monitor is 305.  If you go to your Monitis account now, you will be able to access this monitor.  From the top level menu, go to Monitors then Manage Monitors and then Custom Monitors.  Here you should find the Login Monitor.  Click the check box next to the title and then click Add to Window.  A window will pop up below the Custom Monitors dialog box.  Close the Custom Monitors dialog box and you will see your new monitor there.  But no data has been sent to it, so it is not that interesting.

Sending Data to Custom Monitor

In order to send data to your Custom Monitor, you must provide the action, monitorId, checktime, and results (refer to http://monitis.com/api/api.html#addCustomMonitorResult for specifications).  The action is addResult, the monitorId is the id that was returned to us in the previous example (If you forgot the id, don’t worry we will get it back), the checktime is the timestamp of the results data, and the results is a string of the parameters and values in this format: name1value1;name2value2

The following script will send data to your Custom Monitor:

# add result to Custom Monitor for Monitis

#!/bin/bash
usage()
{
cat << EOF
usage: $0 options

This script will add results to a Custom Monitis Monitor.

OPTIONS:
-h Show this message
-a api key
-s secret key
-m monitor tag
-i monitor id
-t timestamp (defaults to utc now)
-r results name:value[;name2:value2...]
EOF
}

APIKEY=
VERSION="2"
SECRETKEY=
URL="http://monitis.com/customMonitorApi"
OUTPUT="xml"
MONITOR=
ID=
CHECKTIME=`date -u +"%s"000`
TIMESTAMP=`date -u +"%F %T"`
RESULTS=
SESSIONACTION=

while getopts "ha:s:m:i:t:r:s:" OPTION
do
case $OPTION in

h)
usage
exit 1
;;
a)
APIKEY=$OPTARG
;;
s)
SECRETKEY=$OPTARG
;;
m)
MONITOR=$OPTARG
;;
i)
ID=$OPTARG
;;
t)
CHECKTIME=$OPTARG
;;
r)
RESULTS=$OPTARG
;;
esac
done

if [[ -z $APIKEY ]] || [[ -z $SECRETKEY ]] || [[ -z $MONITOR$ID ]] || [[ -z $RESULTS ]] || [[ -z $CHECKTIME ]]
then
usage
exit 1
fi

# Get id of monitor if not provided
if [[ -z $ID ]]
then
XMLID=$(curl -s "$URL?apikey=$APIKEY&output=$OUTPUT&version=$VERSION&action=getMonitors&tag=$MONITOR" | xpath -q -e /monitors/monitor/id)
ID=${XMLID//[^0-9]/}
fi

# Add monitor result
ACTION="addResult"
# Create Checksum
CHECKSUM_STR="action"$ACTION"apikey"$APIKEY"checktime"$CHECKTIME"monitorId"$ID"results"$ RESULTS"timestamp"$TIMESTAMP"version"$VERSION
CHECKSUM=$(echo -en $CHECKSUM_STR | openssl dgst -sha1 -hmac $SECRETKEY -binary | openssl enc -base64 )
# Post Data to API

POSTDATA="--data-urlencode \"action="$ACTION"\" --data-urlencode \"apikey="$APIKEY"\" --data-urlencode \"checktime="$CHECKTIME"\" --data-urlencode \"monitorId="$ID"\" --data-urlencode \"results="$RESULTS"\" --data-urlencode \"timestamp=$TIMESTAMP\" --data-urlencode \"version="$VERSION"\" --data-urlencode \"checksum="$CHECKSUM"\""

eval "curl ${POSTDATA} $URL"

Save this file to monitis_add_result.sh and make executable.  You can run it with no parameters to get a help menu, that should be self-explanatory.  You can either provide the API Key and Secret Key on the command-line or fill in the script to contain it.  The script will provide you with the monitorId if you forget yours, but you will have to know the tag name you gave to your Custom Monitor when you created it.  Therefore, either your tag or your monitorId is required to run this script.

Capturing Information on Login

Now that we have a script to send data to the Custom Monitor, we need to have data to send.  This script could easily be run from .bashrc or /etc/bashrc – and that would work fine, if we knew that no user would be deleting their .bashrc.  Since we cannot guarantee that, we will use PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) to control how and when we send information to the Custom Monitor.  Since no user without root access will be able to alter PAM, this is a secure way to guarantee login information.  Also since sshd, sftp, ftp, and most other programs utilize PAM for authentication, this will monitor all logins to the server, not just shell logins.

PAM offers many options and modules, we will be utilizing a module called pam_script.  pam_script allows you to execute a script on session open, session close, and/or on auth.  You must download and install pam_script first:

wget 'http://freshmeat.net/urls/47ddad89e38001dbe0dc50424e36987b' -O libpam-script.tar.gz
tar -xzvf libpam-script.tar.gz
cd libpam-script-x.x.x #x.x.x is the version that you just download, apparent from tar output
make
sudo cp pam_script.so /lib/security/
sudo chown root:root /lib/security/pam_script.so
sudo chmod 755 /lib/security/pam_script.so

pam_script is now installed, but not configured.  There are three files associated with pam_script, /etc/security/onsessionopen /etc/security/onsessionclose /etc/security/onauth  The first two files will work on a session and the last will work for a successful auth.  Since we want to monitor successful auths, we will create the onauth file:

#!/bin/sh
# onauth for Monitis Custom Login Monitor
USER=$1
SERVICE=$2
HOST=$PAM_RHOST

/etc/security/monitis_add_data.sh -m loginMonitor -r "user_login:$USER;host:$HOST;srv:$SERVICE"

This script will require that you move the monitis_add_data.sh script to /etc/security and make it and the onauth script executable by root and owned by root:

sudo mv monitis_add_data.sh /etc/security
sudo chmod 700 /etc/security/monitis_add_data.sh
sudo chown root:root /etc/security/monitis_add_data.sh
sudo chmod 700 /etc/security/onauth
sudo chown root:root /etc/security/onauth

Now we need to set PAM to utilize the pam_script module.  Depending on your system this will vary, but you need to edit the /etc/pam.d/common-auth file or something similar on your system.  You should add the following line:

# require the scripts to run at auth
auth required   pam_script.so  runas=root expose=rhost

Here we are telling module to run as root and to expose the rhost variable, which will contain the remote host information that we utilize in the above script with the $PAM_RHOST variable

Testing the Monitor

Now we have a setup that will log all usernames, remote hosts, and service that they logged in from to our Custom Monitor.  Give it a try, ssh to your machine several times.  You will see the values appear in your account’s Custom Monitor.

 

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Hovhannes Avoyan

Hovhannes Avoyan is the CEO of PicsArt, Inc.,

@ThingsExpo Stories
With billions of sensors deployed worldwide, the amount of machine-generated data will soon exceed what our networks can handle. But consumers and businesses will expect seamless experiences and real-time responsiveness. What does this mean for IoT devices and the infrastructure that supports them? More of the data will need to be handled at - or closer to - the devices themselves.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CollabNet, a global leader in enterprise software development, release automation and DevOps solutions, will be a Bronze Sponsor of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, taking place from June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CollabNet offers a broad range of solutions with the mission of helping modern organizations deliver quality software at speed. The company’s latest innovation, the DevOps Lifecycle Manager (DLM), supports Value S...
Multiple data types are pouring into IoT deployments. Data is coming in small packages as well as enormous files and data streams of many sizes. Widespread use of mobile devices adds to the total. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the tools and environments that are being put to use in IoT deployments, as well as the team skills a modern enterprise IT shop needs to keep things running, get a handle on all this data, and deli...
In his keynote at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Director of IoT Engineering at Citrix and co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, focused on building an IoT platform and company. He provided a behind-the-scenes look at Octoblu’s platform, business, and pivots along the way (including the Citrix acquisition of Octoblu).
The Internet of Things is clearly many things: data collection and analytics, wearables, Smart Grids and Smart Cities, the Industrial Internet, and more. Cool platforms like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Intel's Galileo and Edison, and a diverse world of sensors are making the IoT a great toy box for developers in all these areas. In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists discussed what things are the most important, which will have the most profound e...
Grape Up is a software company, specialized in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the USA and Europe, we work with a variety of customers from emerging startups to Fortune 1000 companies.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Grape Up will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct. 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company specializing in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the U.S. and Europe, Grape Up works with a variety of customers from emergi...
Financial Technology has become a topic of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 20th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York, June 6-8, 2017, will find fresh new content in a new track called FinTech.
@ThingsExpo has been named the Most Influential ‘Smart Cities - IIoT' Account and @BigDataExpo has been named fourteenth by Right Relevance (RR), which provides curated information and intelligence on approximately 50,000 topics. In addition, Right Relevance provides an Insights offering that combines the above Topics and Influencers information with real time conversations to provide actionable intelligence with visualizations to enable decision making. The Insights service is applicable to eve...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 add...
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm.
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
Today we can collect lots and lots of performance data. We build beautiful dashboards and even have fancy query languages to access and transform the data. Still performance data is a secret language only a couple of people understand. The more business becomes digital the more stakeholders are interested in this data including how it relates to business. Some of these people have never used a monitoring tool before. They have a question on their mind like “How is my application doing” but no id...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @CloudExpo | @ThingsExpo, June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY and October 31 - November 2, 2017, Santa Clara Convention Center, CA. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.
@GonzalezCarmen has been ranked the Number One Influencer and @ThingsExpo has been named the Number One Brand in the “M2M 2016: Top 100 Influencers and Brands” by Analytic. Onalytica analyzed tweets over the last 6 months mentioning the keywords M2M OR “Machine to Machine.” They then identified the top 100 most influential brands and individuals leading the discussion on Twitter.
Five years ago development was seen as a dead-end career, now it’s anything but – with an explosion in mobile and IoT initiatives increasing the demand for skilled engineers. But apart from having a ready supply of great coders, what constitutes true ‘DevOps Royalty’? It’ll be the ability to craft resilient architectures, supportability, security everywhere across the software lifecycle. In his keynote at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Jeffrey Scheaffer, GM and SVP, Continuous Delivery Busine...
Most technology leaders, contemporary and from the hardware era, are reshaping their businesses to do software in the hope of capturing value in IoT. Although IoT is relatively new in the market, it has already gone through many promotional terms such as IoE, IoX, SDX, Edge/Fog, Mist Compute, etc. Ultimately, irrespective of the name, it is about deriving value from independent software assets participating in an ecosystem as one comprehensive solution.
SYS-CON Events announced today that T-Mobile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. As America's Un-carrier, T-Mobile US, Inc., is redefining the way consumers and businesses buy wireless services through leading product and service innovation. The Company's advanced nationwide 4G LTE network delivers outstanding wireless experiences to 67.4 million customers who are unwilling to compromise on ...
The 20th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Containers, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal ...