Click here to close now.




















Welcome!

Linux Containers Authors: Elizabeth White, VictorOps Blog, Liz McMillan, Mike Kavis, Carmen Gonzalez

Related Topics: Linux Containers

Linux Containers: Blog Post

Create Linux User Login Monitor on Monitis

Monitis provides the ability to monitor almost any operation on your server

Monitis provides the ability to monitor almost any operation on your server.  Using simple Linux tools and scripts you are able to monitor each time a user logs into the server and capture various information, including username, host address and login service.  Using pam_script and bash scripts, you are able to transmit information to a Custom Monitor with this information.

API Access

The first thing you will need in order to create this monitor is the Monitis API Key and Secret Key.  The API Key is a alphanumeric code that allows you to access the Monitis API url’s and transmit or receive data about your Monitis services.  The Secret Key is an alphanumeric code that allows you to digitally sign your information to ensure that only you can transmit data to your Monitis account.  Your API Key may be disclosed to anyone, but your Secret Key must be maintained private and should not be shared nor transmitted.  To obtain your Monitis API Key and Secret Key, log into your account and from the top menu bar, go to Tools then API then API Key, it will display both your API Key and your Secret Key.

Now let’s test your API access.  You should be able to connect and get an Auth Token:

curl 'http://www.monitis.com/api?action=authToken&apikey=[API Key]&secretkey=[Secret Key]&version=2'

In the above command you should replace [API Key] and [Secret Key] with your API Key and Secret Key.  We are using curl in order to connect to http://www.monitis.com and access the API to get a Auth Token.  The return value is json and sends back something similar to:

{"authToken":"3TVQN32TIP1DN71OB4GOML1D7N"}

Where the alphanumeric code will be your Auth Token.  You can use your Auth Token to validate against the API later.   However sending your Secret Key is not extremely secure, others could possibly  obtain your Secret Key this way.  The more secure method of authenticating is to send your data using POST instead of GET and using a Base64-encoded RFC 2104-compliant HMAC signature to sign the post data.  The signature is sent in the checksum parameter of the POST data.  To calculate the checksum you must follow these rules:
  1. sort all parameters alphabetically by name (excluding the checksum parameter)
  2. concat all parameter names and values like this: name1value1name2value2…
  3. create Base64-encoded RFC 2104-compliant HMAC signature using Secret Key

The final rule can be calculated using openssl:

echo -en “name1value1name2value2” | openssl dgst -sha1 -hmac [Secret Key] -binary | openssl enc -base64

Creating a Custom Monitor

In order to create a custom monitor, you must send a POST request to the API.  This POST request must contain several parameters: action, name, resultsParams, and tag (refer to http://monitis.com/api/api.html#addCustomMonitor for specifications).  We will use the following specifications for the params:

  • action=addMonitor
  • name=Login Monitor
  • resultsParam=user_login:Login Name:logins:3;host:Host Address:hostaddress:3;srv:Service:service:3
  • tag=loginMonitor

There is other necessary information in order to communicate with the API:

  • apikey=[API Key]
  • timestamp=[Current UTC time]
  • version=2
In order to create our new monitor called Login Monitor we would post this data plus a checksum to http://monitis.com/customMonitorApi which is the Custom Monitor API url.  Here is a simple script that will accomplish this:

#!/bin/bash
# create a Custom Monitor for Monitis
# Be sure to modify the API Key and Secret Key
ACTION="addMonitor"
APIKEY="[API Key]"
NAME="login monitor"
RESULTPARAMS="user_login:Login Name:logins:3;host:Host Address:hostaddress:3;srv:Service:service:3"
TAG="loginMonitor"
TIMESTAMP=`date -u +"%F %T"`
VERSION="2"
SECRETKEY="[Secret Key]"
URL="http://monitis.com/customMonitorApi"

# Create Checksum
CHECKSUM_STR="action"$ACTION"apikey"$APIKEY"name"$NAME"resultParams"$RESULTPARAMS"tag"$ TAG"timestamp"$TIMESTAMP"version"$VERSION
CHECKSUM=$(echo -en $CHECKSUM_STR | openssl dgst -sha1 -hmac $SECRETKEY -binary | openssl enc -base64 )

# Post Data to API
POSTDATA="--data-urlencode \"action="$ACTION"\" --data-urlencode \"apikey="$APIKEY"\" --data-urlencode \"name="$NAME"\" --data-urlencode \"resultParams="$RESULTPARAMS"\" --data-urlencode \"tag="$TAG"\" --data-urlencode \"timestamp=$TIMESTAMP\" --data-urlencode \"version="$VERSION"\" --data-urlencode \"checksum="$CHECKSUM"\""

eval "curl ${POSTDATA} $URL"

Save the above script into a file called monitis_create_monitor.sh, be sure not to change the order of the variables in the checksum calculation as they must be in alphabetical order.  Ensure to make this file executable:

chmod 755 monitis_create_monitor.sh

Now run it:
./monitis_create_monitor.sh

The output should look similar to this:

{"status":"ok","data":305}

This is showing us that the monitor was successfully created and that the id of the resulting monitor is 305.  If you go to your Monitis account now, you will be able to access this monitor.  From the top level menu, go to Monitors then Manage Monitors and then Custom Monitors.  Here you should find the Login Monitor.  Click the check box next to the title and then click Add to Window.  A window will pop up below the Custom Monitors dialog box.  Close the Custom Monitors dialog box and you will see your new monitor there.  But no data has been sent to it, so it is not that interesting.

Sending Data to Custom Monitor

In order to send data to your Custom Monitor, you must provide the action, monitorId, checktime, and results (refer to http://monitis.com/api/api.html#addCustomMonitorResult for specifications).  The action is addResult, the monitorId is the id that was returned to us in the previous example (If you forgot the id, don’t worry we will get it back), the checktime is the timestamp of the results data, and the results is a string of the parameters and values in this format: name1value1;name2value2

The following script will send data to your Custom Monitor:

# add result to Custom Monitor for Monitis

#!/bin/bash
usage()
{
cat << EOF
usage: $0 options

This script will add results to a Custom Monitis Monitor.

OPTIONS:
-h Show this message
-a api key
-s secret key
-m monitor tag
-i monitor id
-t timestamp (defaults to utc now)
-r results name:value[;name2:value2...]
EOF
}

APIKEY=
VERSION="2"
SECRETKEY=
URL="http://monitis.com/customMonitorApi"
OUTPUT="xml"
MONITOR=
ID=
CHECKTIME=`date -u +"%s"000`
TIMESTAMP=`date -u +"%F %T"`
RESULTS=
SESSIONACTION=

while getopts "ha:s:m:i:t:r:s:" OPTION
do
case $OPTION in

h)
usage
exit 1
;;
a)
APIKEY=$OPTARG
;;
s)
SECRETKEY=$OPTARG
;;
m)
MONITOR=$OPTARG
;;
i)
ID=$OPTARG
;;
t)
CHECKTIME=$OPTARG
;;
r)
RESULTS=$OPTARG
;;
esac
done

if [[ -z $APIKEY ]] || [[ -z $SECRETKEY ]] || [[ -z $MONITOR$ID ]] || [[ -z $RESULTS ]] || [[ -z $CHECKTIME ]]
then
usage
exit 1
fi

# Get id of monitor if not provided
if [[ -z $ID ]]
then
XMLID=$(curl -s "$URL?apikey=$APIKEY&output=$OUTPUT&version=$VERSION&action=getMonitors&tag=$MONITOR" | xpath -q -e /monitors/monitor/id)
ID=${XMLID//[^0-9]/}
fi

# Add monitor result
ACTION="addResult"
# Create Checksum
CHECKSUM_STR="action"$ACTION"apikey"$APIKEY"checktime"$CHECKTIME"monitorId"$ID"results"$ RESULTS"timestamp"$TIMESTAMP"version"$VERSION
CHECKSUM=$(echo -en $CHECKSUM_STR | openssl dgst -sha1 -hmac $SECRETKEY -binary | openssl enc -base64 )
# Post Data to API

POSTDATA="--data-urlencode \"action="$ACTION"\" --data-urlencode \"apikey="$APIKEY"\" --data-urlencode \"checktime="$CHECKTIME"\" --data-urlencode \"monitorId="$ID"\" --data-urlencode \"results="$RESULTS"\" --data-urlencode \"timestamp=$TIMESTAMP\" --data-urlencode \"version="$VERSION"\" --data-urlencode \"checksum="$CHECKSUM"\""

eval "curl ${POSTDATA} $URL"

Save this file to monitis_add_result.sh and make executable.  You can run it with no parameters to get a help menu, that should be self-explanatory.  You can either provide the API Key and Secret Key on the command-line or fill in the script to contain it.  The script will provide you with the monitorId if you forget yours, but you will have to know the tag name you gave to your Custom Monitor when you created it.  Therefore, either your tag or your monitorId is required to run this script.

Capturing Information on Login

Now that we have a script to send data to the Custom Monitor, we need to have data to send.  This script could easily be run from .bashrc or /etc/bashrc – and that would work fine, if we knew that no user would be deleting their .bashrc.  Since we cannot guarantee that, we will use PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) to control how and when we send information to the Custom Monitor.  Since no user without root access will be able to alter PAM, this is a secure way to guarantee login information.  Also since sshd, sftp, ftp, and most other programs utilize PAM for authentication, this will monitor all logins to the server, not just shell logins.

PAM offers many options and modules, we will be utilizing a module called pam_script.  pam_script allows you to execute a script on session open, session close, and/or on auth.  You must download and install pam_script first:

wget 'http://freshmeat.net/urls/47ddad89e38001dbe0dc50424e36987b' -O libpam-script.tar.gz
tar -xzvf libpam-script.tar.gz
cd libpam-script-x.x.x #x.x.x is the version that you just download, apparent from tar output
make
sudo cp pam_script.so /lib/security/
sudo chown root:root /lib/security/pam_script.so
sudo chmod 755 /lib/security/pam_script.so

pam_script is now installed, but not configured.  There are three files associated with pam_script, /etc/security/onsessionopen /etc/security/onsessionclose /etc/security/onauth  The first two files will work on a session and the last will work for a successful auth.  Since we want to monitor successful auths, we will create the onauth file:

#!/bin/sh
# onauth for Monitis Custom Login Monitor
USER=$1
SERVICE=$2
HOST=$PAM_RHOST

/etc/security/monitis_add_data.sh -m loginMonitor -r "user_login:$USER;host:$HOST;srv:$SERVICE"

This script will require that you move the monitis_add_data.sh script to /etc/security and make it and the onauth script executable by root and owned by root:

sudo mv monitis_add_data.sh /etc/security
sudo chmod 700 /etc/security/monitis_add_data.sh
sudo chown root:root /etc/security/monitis_add_data.sh
sudo chmod 700 /etc/security/onauth
sudo chown root:root /etc/security/onauth

Now we need to set PAM to utilize the pam_script module.  Depending on your system this will vary, but you need to edit the /etc/pam.d/common-auth file or something similar on your system.  You should add the following line:

# require the scripts to run at auth
auth required   pam_script.so  runas=root expose=rhost

Here we are telling module to run as root and to expose the rhost variable, which will contain the remote host information that we utilize in the above script with the $PAM_RHOST variable

Testing the Monitor

Now we have a setup that will log all usernames, remote hosts, and service that they logged in from to our Custom Monitor.  Give it a try, ssh to your machine several times.  You will see the values appear in your account’s Custom Monitor.

 

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Hovhannes Avoyan

Hovhannes Avoyan is the CEO of Monitis, Inc., a provider of on-demand systems management and monitoring software to 50,000 users spanning small businesses and Fortune 500 companies.

Prior to Monitis, he served as General Manager and Director of Development at prominent web portal Lycos Europe, where he grew the Lycos Armenia group from 30 people to over 200, making it the company's largest development center. Prior to Lycos, Avoyan was VP of Technology at Brience, Inc. (based in San Francisco and acquired by Syniverse), which delivered mobile internet content solutions to companies like Cisco, Ingram Micro, Washington Mutual, Wyndham Hotels , T-Mobile , and CNN. Prior to that, he served as the founder and CEO of CEDIT ltd., which was acquired by Brience. A 24 year veteran of the software industry, he also runs Sourcio cjsc, an IT consulting company and startup incubator specializing in web 2.0 products and open-source technologies.

Hovhannes is a senior lecturer at the American Univeristy of Armenia and has been a visiting lecturer at San Francisco State University. He is a graduate of Bertelsmann University.

@ThingsExpo Stories
With the proliferation of connected devices underpinning new Internet of Things systems, Brandon Schulz, Director of Luxoft IoT – Retail, will be looking at the transformation of the retail customer experience in brick and mortar stores in his session at @ThingsExpo. Questions he will address include: Will beacons drop to the wayside like QR codes, or be a proximity-based profit driver? How will the customer experience change in stores of all types when everything can be instrumented and analyzed? As an area of investment, how might a retail company move towards an innovation methodolo...
Contrary to mainstream media attention, the multiple possibilities of how consumer IoT will transform our everyday lives aren’t the only angle of this headline-gaining trend. There’s a huge opportunity for “industrial IoT” and “Smart Cities” to impact the world in the same capacity – especially during critical situations. For example, a community water dam that needs to release water can leverage embedded critical communications logic to alert the appropriate individuals, on the right device, as soon as they are needed to take action.
Manufacturing connected IoT versions of traditional products requires more than multiple deep technology skills. It also requires a shift in mindset, to realize that connected, sensor-enabled “things” act more like services than what we usually think of as products. In his session at @ThingsExpo, David Friedman, CEO and co-founder of Ayla Networks, will discuss how when sensors start generating detailed real-world data about products and how they’re being used, smart manufacturers can use the data to create additional revenue streams, such as improved warranties or premium features. Or slash...
WebRTC services have already permeated corporate communications in the form of videoconferencing solutions. However, WebRTC has the potential of going beyond and catalyzing a new class of services providing more than calls with capabilities such as mass-scale real-time media broadcasting, enriched and augmented video, person-to-machine and machine-to-machine communications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Luis Lopez, CEO of Kurento, will introduce the technologies required for implementing these ideas and some early experiments performed in the Kurento open source software community in areas ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
While many app developers are comfortable building apps for the smartphone, there is a whole new world out there. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Narayan Sainaney, Co-founder and CTO of Mojio, will discuss how the business case for connected car apps is growing and, with open platform companies having already done the heavy lifting, there really is no barrier to entry.
As more intelligent IoT applications shift into gear, they’re merging into the ever-increasing traffic flow of the Internet. It won’t be long before we experience bottlenecks, as IoT traffic peaks during rush hours. Organizations that are unprepared will find themselves by the side of the road unable to cross back into the fast lane. As billions of new devices begin to communicate and exchange data – will your infrastructure be scalable enough to handle this new interconnected world?
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo, November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be.
The Internet of Things is in the early stages of mainstream deployment but it promises to unlock value and rapidly transform how organizations manage, operationalize, and monetize their assets. IoT is a complex structure of hardware, sensors, applications, analytics and devices that need to be able to communicate geographically and across all functions. Once the data is collected from numerous endpoints, the challenge then becomes converting it into actionable insight.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Micron Technology, Inc., a global leader in advanced semiconductor systems, will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Micron’s broad portfolio of high-performance memory technologies – including DRAM, NAND and NOR Flash – is the basis for solid state drives, modules, multichip packages and other system solutions. Backed by more than 35 years of technology leadership, Micron's memory solutions enable the world's most innovative computing, consumer,...
With the Apple Watch making its way onto wrists all over the world, it’s only a matter of time before it becomes a staple in the workplace. In fact, Forrester reported that 68 percent of technology and business decision-makers characterize wearables as a top priority for 2015. Recognizing their business value early on, FinancialForce.com was the first to bring ERP to wearables, helping streamline communication across front and back office functions. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Kevin Roberts, GM of Platform at FinancialForce.com, will discuss the value of business applications on wearable ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that IceWarp will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. IceWarp, the leader of cloud and on-premise messaging, delivers secured email, chat, documents, conferencing and collaboration to today's mobile workforce, all in one unified interface
As more and more data is generated from a variety of connected devices, the need to get insights from this data and predict future behavior and trends is increasingly essential for businesses. Real-time stream processing is needed in a variety of different industries such as Manufacturing, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Finance, Online Retail, Smart Grids, and Healthcare. Azure Stream Analytics is a fully managed distributed stream computation service that provides low latency, scalable processing of streaming data in the cloud with an enterprise grade SLA. It features built-in integration with Azur...
17th Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterprises are using some form of XaaS – software, platform, and infrastructure as a service.
SYS-CON Events announced today the Containers & Microservices Bootcamp, being held November 3-4, 2015, in conjunction with 17th Cloud Expo, @ThingsExpo, and @DevOpsSummit at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. This is your chance to get started with the latest technology in the industry. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the Containers and Microservices Bootcamp, led by Janakiram MSV, a Microsoft Regional Director, will include presentations as well as hands-on demos and comprehensive walkthroughs.
SYS-CON Events announced today that the "Second Containers & Microservices Expo" will take place November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities.
Akana has announced the availability of the new Akana Healthcare Solution. The API-driven solution helps healthcare organizations accelerate their transition to being secure, digitally interoperable businesses. It leverages the Health Level Seven International Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (HL7 FHIR) standard to enable broader business use of medical data. Akana developed the Healthcare Solution in response to healthcare businesses that want to increase electronic, multi-device access to health records while reducing operating costs and complying with government regulations.
Containers are not new, but renewed commitments to performance, flexibility, and agility have propelled them to the top of the agenda today. By working without the need for virtualization and its overhead, containers are seen as the perfect way to deploy apps and services across multiple clouds. Containers can handle anything from file types to operating systems and services, including microservices. What are microservices? Unlike what the name implies, microservices are not necessarily small, but are focused on specific tasks. The ability for developers to deploy multiple containers – thous...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal an...
Consumer IoT applications provide data about the user that just doesn’t exist in traditional PC or mobile web applications. This rich data, or “context,” enables the highly personalized consumer experiences that characterize many consumer IoT apps. This same data is also providing brands with unprecedented insight into how their connected products are being used, while, at the same time, powering highly targeted engagement and marketing opportunities. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Nathan Treloar, President and COO of Bebaio, will explore examples of brands transforming their businesses by t...