Welcome!

Linux Containers Authors: Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Sematext Blog, XebiaLabs Blog

Related Topics: Linux Containers

Linux Containers: Article

Video-on-Demand and Linux

A match made in Hollywood

As consumers we've become an impatient lot. We live in a world where "on-demand" is a part of our everyday lexicon. Whether it's our travel, our meals, or our money, we just want it now. This is the case with our television as well. Enter the hottest new product offering to be marketed by video service providers: Video-on-Demand (VOD.)

Don't underestimate it - VOD is big business for the cable and telecom companies offering it. Use of VOD services is growing at an astounding pace. Cable companies use VOD as a weapon to thwart the advances of competitive satellite providers who lack the two-way communications infrastructures to provide true interactivity. And what a weapon it is - major deals with networks and studios are making compelling high-quality content available to consumers at the touch of a button - whenever and wherever they want it.

As VOD becomes a standard product offering, there are key features that resonate with consumers, features that can make the difference between a successful VOD rollout and a flop.

Critical Success Factors for VOD
Content is king in the world of VOD, and the availability of popular programs and movies drive the use and growth of on-demand services. Adoption at the consumer level is strong - Comcast served up over 1.4 billion VOD sessions to consumers in 2005, and use of VOD services keeps increasing. With ever-increasing content options to choose from, the sky's the limit for VOD growth.

Huge libraries of exciting content are both a blessing and a curse. With all that compelling content out there, navigation can become a chore. A dilemma of sorts has developed - as more content becomes available, the ability to locate the desired content or browse available options becomes more difficult. Service providers must arm consumers with powerful navigation tools that let them find content quickly and efficiently. Otherwise the value of all that great content can be lost in the shuffle.

The Most Important Factor of All
Content and navigation aside, there's another factor that can make the difference between customer satisfaction and customer defection - reliability. The greatest content lineup can be quickly rendered useless if delivered by a VOD platform that's unstable or unreliable. Unreliable content delivery hurts everyone - the studios, the advertisers, the content providers, but most important, the consumer. Early VOD rollouts were rife with high session failure rates and cumbersome navigation tools - both of which frustrated users a lot. Today, consumers expect VOD experiences that rival Internet uptimes in terms quality of service (QoS).

In an effort to improve QoS dramatically, service providers have invested billions of dollars in their infrastructures to give customers the high-quality experiences they expect. The result is network infrastructures that can deliver the so-called triple play - voice, video, and data - with the reliability and predictability consumers are willing to pay for. And customers have come to expect the same quality no matter what the service. In the eyes of the consumer, video services used for entertainment must meet the same exacting standards as the voice and data services used for business or communications applications.

To be deemed acceptable, VOD services must meet the height of QoS standards. Whether pay or free events, consumers who enter the VOD domain do so on their own volition, and demand a higher standard for quality than with broadcast TV. If a consumer "invests" time or money in a VOD event, that event better be delivered as promised. If service is disrupted or quality compromised, the value of the content delivered is negated. Service providers are demanding ever-increasing reliability from the VOD platforms they deploy.

The bar has been raised for every stakeholder in the VOD food chain. And the pressure can be felt most by the providers of the components that do most of the work - the streaming and storage components of the system.

Benefits of Linux
Video on Demand is an extremely demanding application for today's computers and networks. Session setups and teardowns can happen at alarmingly high rates during peak usage. The Linux operating system provides an ideal platform on which to build VOD systems. The robustness and reliability offered by Linux in general - and specifically Linux with high determinism enhancements - provides an outstanding foundation on which to build highly complex applications that can take advantage of the inherent multithreading capabilities of Linux.

Linux being a "leaner" environment means that programs and the operating system often take up less space on hard drives and require less processing power and less RAM. This means more of the system's resources can be devoted to the heavy lifting of VOD processing, providing the best of both worlds - a powerful VOD system with the reliability and cost-effectiveness to enable business success.

Linux also offers the flexibility of allowing features to be omitted from the running kernel that don't relate to the task in hand. A good example in a video server streaming 2400 streams is that the CD-ROM driver can be omitted since accessing the CD-ROM during the streaming process can adversely affect performance and thus customer satisfaction.

Another example of why Linux is such a good fit for VOD is the ease of integrating drivers as loadable modules. This means new and enhanced drivers can be added quickly and easily to meet changing market requirements. This modular approach lets developers rapidly adapt to service providers' constantly evolving needs.

The general availability of high-performance drivers for high-speed networking and high-bandwidth IO controllers facilitates intercommunication between the various VOD server components and systems to insure continued improvements in VOD performance, streams per server, and ongoing quality of service.

It's More Than Just Software
Software benefits are only one part of the story. Another aspect of Linux that's a strong value-add is the General Public License (GPL) that it's licensed under. Software development philosophies tend to diverge over time due to the often-opposing pull of different interests and the experimental tendencies of developers. The divergence of Unix development in the early days is a good example of that.

But forking isn't always bad because it lets different camps try out different ideas independently (and sometimes competitively.) The power of the GPL is that it lets the key advances of successful divergent development pathways "re-join" the mainstream so that the body of software collectively known as Linux can advance at a much faster rate. This "parallel processing" strategy shortens development timelines for many complicated applications. Ultimately it's the end users who benefit from such an approach. The process effectively speeds up software evolution.

As a related side effect, the code's visibility allows for much better independent peer review, and so it tends to be of higher quality than that produced by a team who knows that nobody will ever see their code.

When Will It End?
In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore observed that the number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits had doubled every year since the integrated circuit had been invented. This observation evolved into Moore's Law, which says data density will double every 18 or 24 months for the foreseeable future. Moore's Law has held true for all this time and is expected to be valid for at least another two decades.

The effect of Moore's Law trickles down into virtually all computing applications and VOD is no different. There's an expectation in the VOD marketplace that this translates into rapid advances in server density and throughput. In the past five years on-demand servers have improved from dozens of streams per RU (rack unit) with hundreds of hours of content storage to thousands of streams per RU with tens of thousands hours of content storage. As VOD use grows, this trend is expected to continue well into the future.

One of the greatest assets of the Linux operating system that is sometimes overlooked is the large and growing support community and discussion forums that address issues almost as fast as they appear. New problems are resolved in this Open Source environment faster and more efficiently than possible in the traditional proprietary source code world. After all, the Linux community consists of tens of thousands of enthusiastic contributors who are eager to help solve code issues as quickly as they may emerge. It's doubtful any single company has as many development employees available to not only solve problems in existing code but constantly develop innovative new software solutions.

Moving Forward
Boasting high demand for throughput, Video-on-Demand requires an operating system capable of supporting a large number of threads or processes efficiently along with large memory configurations. Linux is ideally suited to the task.

Entertainment's recent evolution to the on-demand business model is a driving force in the development of applications featuring increasingly efficient scheduling and larger memory models. The latest kernel versions of Linux deliver the performance needed for serving up huge amounts of widely varying content to the tens of thousands of simultaneous VOD users in a typical deployment.

Linux and Video-on-Demand are changing entertainment to make it more accessible to viewers, reshaping the way people watch television. It will be exciting to see how VOD grows and evolves over the next decade thanks to a powerful Linux core.

More Stories By Bruce Crutcher

Bruce Crutcher is a Linux systems product manager for Concurrent, a provider of Video-on-Demand. He is responsible for directing corporate productization and lifecycles of COTS multiprocessor platforms and real-time Linux-based operating systems. Bruce has a degree in computer science and formal training in ISO 9000 standards, Systemation Project Management, and the Cosby Quality Management System.

More Stories By Tim Dodge

Tim Dodge is the director of VOD marketing at Concurrent, a provider of Video-on-Demand. He has an MBA from Wake Forest University and a bachelor's degree from the University of North Carolina. Tim is an active member of SCTE and the Cable and Telecommunications Association for Marketing (CTAM).

Comments (1) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
SYS-CON Italy News Desk 03/12/06 12:01:49 PM EST

As consumers we've become an impatient lot. We live in a world where 'on-demand' is a part of our everyday lexicon. Whether it's our travel, our meals, or our money, we just want it now. This is the case with our television as well. Enter the hottest new product offering to be marketed by video service providers: Video-on-Demand (VOD.)

@ThingsExpo Stories
“delaPlex Software provides software outsourcing services. We have a hybrid model where we have onshore developers and project managers that we can place anywhere in the U.S. or in Europe,” explained Manish Sachdeva, CEO at delaPlex Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"We've discovered that after shows 80% if leads that people get, 80% of the conversations end up on the show floor, meaning people forget about it, people forget who they talk to, people forget that there are actual business opportunities to be had here so we try to help out and keep the conversations going," explained Jeff Mesnik, Founder and President of ContentMX, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
From wearable activity trackers to fantasy e-sports, data and technology are transforming the way athletes train for the game and fans engage with their teams. In his session at @ThingsExpo, will present key data findings from leading sports organizations San Francisco 49ers, Orlando Magic NBA team. By utilizing data analytics these sports orgs have recognized new revenue streams, doubled its fan base and streamlined costs at its stadiums. John Paul is the CEO and Founder of VenueNext. Prior ...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.
The IoT is changing the way enterprises conduct business. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how businesses can gain an edge over competitors by empowering consumers to take control through IoT. He cited examples such as a Washington, D.C.-based sports club that leveraged IoT and the cloud to develop a comprehensive booking system. He also highlighted how IoT can revitalize and restore outdated business models, making them profitable ...
With 15% of enterprises adopting a hybrid IT strategy, you need to set a plan to integrate hybrid cloud throughout your infrastructure. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Steven Dreher, Director of Solutions Architecture at Green House Data, discussed how to plan for shifting resource requirements, overcome challenges, and implement hybrid IT alongside your existing data center assets. Highlights included anticipating workload, cost and resource calculations, integrating services on both sides...
Big Data engines are powering a lot of service businesses right now. Data is collected from users from wearable technologies, web behaviors, purchase behavior as well as several arbitrary data points we’d never think of. The demand for faster and bigger engines to crunch and serve up the data to services is growing exponentially. You see a LOT of correlation between “Cloud” and “Big Data” but on Big Data and “Hybrid,” where hybrid hosting is the sanest approach to the Big Data Infrastructure pro...
"We are a well-established player in the application life cycle management market and we also have a very strong version control product," stated Flint Brenton, CEO of CollabNet,, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
We all know the latest numbers: Gartner, Inc. forecasts that 6.4 billion connected things will be in use worldwide in 2016, up 30 percent from last year, and will reach 20.8 billion by 2020. We're rapidly approaching a data production of 40 zettabytes a day – more than we can every physically store, and exabytes and yottabytes are just around the corner. For many that’s a good sign, as data has been proven to equal money – IF it’s ingested, integrated, and analyzed fast enough. Without real-ti...
I wanted to gather all of my Internet of Things (IOT) blogs into a single blog (that I could later use with my University of San Francisco (USF) Big Data “MBA” course). However as I started to pull these blogs together, I realized that my IOT discussion lacked a vision; it lacked an end point towards which an organization could drive their IOT envisioning, proof of value, app dev, data engineering and data science efforts. And I think that the IOT end point is really quite simple…
A critical component of any IoT project is what to do with all the data being generated. This data needs to be captured, processed, structured, and stored in a way to facilitate different kinds of queries. Traditional data warehouse and analytical systems are mature technologies that can be used to handle certain kinds of queries, but they are not always well suited to many problems, particularly when there is a need for real-time insights.
Unless your company can spend a lot of money on new technology, re-engineering your environment and hiring a comprehensive cybersecurity team, you will most likely move to the cloud or seek external service partnerships. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Darren Guccione, CEO of Keeper Security, revealed what you need to know when it comes to encryption in the cloud.
We're entering the post-smartphone era, where wearable gadgets from watches and fitness bands to glasses and health aids will power the next technological revolution. With mass adoption of wearable devices comes a new data ecosystem that must be protected. Wearables open new pathways that facilitate the tracking, sharing and storing of consumers’ personal health, location and daily activity data. Consumers have some idea of the data these devices capture, but most don’t realize how revealing and...
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
"delaPlex is a software development company. We do team-based outsourcing development," explained Mark Rivers, COO and Co-founder of delaPlex Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
WebRTC is bringing significant change to the communications landscape that will bridge the worlds of web and telephony, making the Internet the new standard for communications. Cloud9 took the road less traveled and used WebRTC to create a downloadable enterprise-grade communications platform that is changing the communication dynamic in the financial sector. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Leo Papadopoulos, CTO of Cloud9, discussed the importance of WebRTC and how it enables companies to focus...
Is your aging software platform suffering from technical debt while the market changes and demands new solutions at a faster clip? It’s a bold move, but you might consider walking away from your core platform and starting fresh. ReadyTalk did exactly that. In his General Session at 19th Cloud Expo, Michael Chambliss, Head of Engineering at ReadyTalk, will discuss why and how ReadyTalk diverted from healthy revenue and over a decade of audio conferencing product development to start an innovati...
Early adopters of IoT viewed it mainly as a different term for machine-to-machine connectivity or M2M. This is understandable since a prerequisite for any IoT solution is the ability to collect and aggregate device data, which is most often presented in a dashboard. The problem is that viewing data in a dashboard requires a human to interpret the results and take manual action, which doesn’t scale to the needs of IoT.
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...