Welcome!

Linux Containers Authors: Elizabeth White, Yeshim Deniz, Jignesh Solanki, Stackify Blog, Pat Romanski

Related Topics: Cloud Security, Linux Containers, Open Source Cloud

Cloud Security: Tutorial

Tutorial: OpenSSL Command

A solution to many of your security requirements

The OpenSSL is based on SSLeay library developed by Eric A. Young and Tim J. Hudson and licensed under an Apache-style license. OpenSSL has lots of features but I will cover encoding, checksums, encryption, passwords and pass phrases.

Many Linux distributions have OpenSSL as part of the bundled packages and is most likely located in /usr/bin. To find it on your system type:

$ which openssl
/usr/bin/openssl
$ openssl version

OpenSSL 1.0.0a 1 Jun 2010

Versions may vary and currently openssl-1.0.0d Feb 8 is the current version. Most of the examples that are found in this document should work on most versions.

Base64 encoding and decoding can be performed alone or used in conjunction with encryption and decryption. Below we are encoding a file with base64:

$ openssl base64 -in text.txt -out text.3634

Now we are decoding it:

$ openssl base64 -d -in text.3634 -out text.txt

File name extensions are not relevant to OpenSSL and you can drop them.

Encryptions
Encrypt a file with any of the available ciphers:

$ openssl list-cipher-commands

This will list a number of ciphers to use. Now let's encrypt the file using triple DES in CBC “Cipher Block Chaining” mode using a prompted password:

$ openssl des3 -salt -in recept.pdf -out recept.des3

prompted for a password enter it twice. To decrypt the file using the supplied password

$ openssl des3 -d -salt -in recept.des3 -out recept.pdf -k password

enter des-ede3-cbc encryption password:

Verifying – enter des-ede3-cbc encryption password:

You can encrypt a file then base64 encode it using Blowfish in CBC mode using the following comamnd:

$ openssl bf -a -salt -in recept.pdf -out recept.bf

enter bf-cbc encryption password:

Verifying – enter bf-cbc encryption password:

Again the file extensions are not relevant and if you open the file with a gedit it will be a bunch of characters. OpenSSL won't manage the files and file extensions for you, you must specify where you want the outgoing data written. The reason to encrypt then encode and not the other way around is you want to have random data to encrypt and when you encode you are left with no random data. To decrypt us the following command:

$ openssl bf -d -salt -a -in recept001.bf -out recept001.pdf

enter bf-cbc decryption password:

Have strong password is important but like many discover its also difficult to maintain password different for many devices. The goal with password is to make a secret that you can remember but someone else wont know and cant guess. You can generate pass phrases with OpenSSL using this command:

$ openssl rand 20 -base64

This generates a random character that is 20 binary bytes with base64 encoding for a total of 28 characters.

Shadow-style password hash
OpenSSL has the ability for creating encrypted Linux passwords exactly like those make by /bin/passwd. Just enter in the following command:

$ openssl passwd -1 enter-in-text
$1$Av0HxLID$WLFyqVyjJOtqnYfVufpCw0

Every time you enter the above it will produce a different hash, your hash will be different except for the $1$ in front. You can make a hash of your password that you choose without outputting the result to the screen like so:

$ openssl passwd -1

Password:

Verifying – Password

Checksums
A checksum is a way of ensuring that data has not been corrupted, either accidentally or maliciously. OpenSSL uses md5 but the MD5 algorithm suffers from vulnerabilities and should not be used anymore. Instead use the more secure sha1sum (see Figure 1).

Figure 1

Notice the difference in hash output lengths.

OpenSSL is FIPS 140-2 Level 1 validation and is available for government cryptography. The FIPS 140-2 User Guide is available here updated November 21, 2009. This tool is available for use in the enterprise and with a little administration can provide a solution to many of your security requirements.

Let pbnetworks get your pen-test on target

Visit us and learn how http://pbnetworks.net

How secure is your network?

More Stories By David Dodd

David J. Dodd is currently in the United States and holds a current 'Top Secret' DoD Clearance and is available for consulting on various Information Assurance projects. A former U.S. Marine with Avionics background in Electronic Countermeasures Systems. David has given talks at the San Diego Regional Security Conference and SDISSA, is a member of InfraGard, and contributes to Secure our eCity http://securingourecity.org. He works for Xerox as Information Security Officer City of San Diego & pbnetworks Inc. http://pbnetworks.net a Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business (SDVOSB) located in San Diego, CA and can be contacted by emailing: dave at pbnetworks.net.

@ThingsExpo Stories
BnkToTheFuture.com is the largest online investment platform for investing in FinTech, Bitcoin and Blockchain companies. We believe the future of finance looks very different from the past and we aim to invest and provide trading opportunities for qualifying investors that want to build a portfolio in the sector in compliance with international financial regulations.
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, whic...
Imagine if you will, a retail floor so densely packed with sensors that they can pick up the movements of insects scurrying across a store aisle. Or a component of a piece of factory equipment so well-instrumented that its digital twin provides resolution down to the micrometer.
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settle...
Product connectivity goes hand and hand these days with increased use of personal data. New IoT devices are becoming more personalized than ever before. In his session at 22nd Cloud Expo | DXWorld Expo, Nicolas Fierro, CEO of MIMIR Blockchain Solutions, will discuss how in order to protect your data and privacy, IoT applications need to embrace Blockchain technology for a new level of product security never before seen - or needed.
Leading companies, from the Global Fortune 500 to the smallest companies, are adopting hybrid cloud as the path to business advantage. Hybrid cloud depends on cloud services and on-premises infrastructure working in unison. Successful implementations require new levels of data mobility, enabled by an automated and seamless flow across on-premises and cloud resources. In his general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Tevis, an IBM Storage Software Technical Strategist and Customer Solution Architec...
Nordstrom is transforming the way that they do business and the cloud is the key to enabling speed and hyper personalized customer experiences. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ken Schow, VP of Engineering at Nordstrom, discussed some of the key learnings and common pitfalls of large enterprises moving to the cloud. This includes strategies around choosing a cloud provider(s), architecture, and lessons learned. In addition, he covered some of the best practices for structured team migration an...
No hype cycles or predictions of a gazillion things here. IoT is here. You get it. You know your business and have great ideas for a business transformation strategy. What comes next? Time to make it happen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jay Mason, an Associate Partner of Analytics, IoT & Cybersecurity at M&S Consulting, presented a step-by-step plan to develop your technology implementation strategy. He also discussed the evaluation of communication standards and IoT messaging protocols, data...
Coca-Cola’s Google powered digital signage system lays the groundwork for a more valuable connection between Coke and its customers. Digital signs pair software with high-resolution displays so that a message can be changed instantly based on what the operator wants to communicate or sell. In their Day 3 Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Chambers, Global Group Director, Digital Innovation, Coca-Cola, and Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, discussed how from store operations and ...
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Raju Shreewastava, founder of Big Data Trunk, provided a fun and simple way to introduce Machine Leaning to anyone and everyone. He solved a machine learning problem and demonstrated an easy way to be able to do machine learning without even coding. Raju Shreewastava is the founder of Big Data Trunk (www.BigDataTrunk.com), a Big Data Training and consulting firm with offices in the United States. He previously led the data warehouse/business intelligence and B...
"IBM is really all in on blockchain. We take a look at sort of the history of blockchain ledger technologies. It started out with bitcoin, Ethereum, and IBM evaluated these particular blockchain technologies and found they were anonymous and permissionless and that many companies were looking for permissioned blockchain," stated René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Conventi...
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...
Smart cities have the potential to change our lives at so many levels for citizens: less pollution, reduced parking obstacles, better health, education and more energy savings. Real-time data streaming and the Internet of Things (IoT) possess the power to turn this vision into a reality. However, most organizations today are building their data infrastructure to focus solely on addressing immediate business needs vs. a platform capable of quickly adapting emerging technologies to address future ...
We are given a desktop platform with Java 8 or Java 9 installed and seek to find a way to deploy high-performance Java applications that use Java 3D and/or Jogl without having to run an installer. We are subject to the constraint that the applications be signed and deployed so that they can be run in a trusted environment (i.e., outside of the sandbox). Further, we seek to do this in a way that does not depend on bundling a JRE with our applications, as this makes downloads and installations rat...
Widespread fragmentation is stalling the growth of the IIoT and making it difficult for partners to work together. The number of software platforms, apps, hardware and connectivity standards is creating paralysis among businesses that are afraid of being locked into a solution. EdgeX Foundry is unifying the community around a common IoT edge framework and an ecosystem of interoperable components.
DX World EXPO, LLC, a Lighthouse Point, Florida-based startup trade show producer and the creator of "DXWorldEXPO® - Digital Transformation Conference & Expo" has announced its executive management team. The team is headed by Levent Selamoglu, who has been named CEO. "Now is the time for a truly global DX event, to bring together the leading minds from the technology world in a conversation about Digital Transformation," he said in making the announcement.
In this strange new world where more and more power is drawn from business technology, companies are effectively straddling two paths on the road to innovation and transformation into digital enterprises. The first path is the heritage trail – with “legacy” technology forming the background. Here, extant technologies are transformed by core IT teams to provide more API-driven approaches. Legacy systems can restrict companies that are transitioning into digital enterprises. To truly become a lead...
Digital Transformation (DX) is not a "one-size-fits all" strategy. Each organization needs to develop its own unique, long-term DX plan. It must do so by realizing that we now live in a data-driven age, and that technologies such as Cloud Computing, Big Data, the IoT, Cognitive Computing, and Blockchain are only tools. In her general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Rebecca Wanta explained how the strategy must focus on DX and include a commitment from top management to create great IT jobs, monitor ...
"Cloud Academy is an enterprise training platform for the cloud, specifically public clouds. We offer guided learning experiences on AWS, Azure, Google Cloud and all the surrounding methodologies and technologies that you need to know and your teams need to know in order to leverage the full benefits of the cloud," explained Alex Brower, VP of Marketing at Cloud Academy, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clar...
The IoT Will Grow: In what might be the most obvious prediction of the decade, the IoT will continue to expand next year, with more and more devices coming online every single day. What isn’t so obvious about this prediction: where that growth will occur. The retail, healthcare, and industrial/supply chain industries will likely see the greatest growth. Forrester Research has predicted the IoT will become “the backbone” of customer value as it continues to grow. It is no surprise that retail is ...