|By David Dodd||
|August 18, 2011 07:30 AM EDT||
The OpenSSL is based on SSLeay library developed by Eric A. Young and Tim J. Hudson and licensed under an Apache-style license. OpenSSL has lots of features but I will cover encoding, checksums, encryption, passwords and pass phrases.
Many Linux distributions have OpenSSL as part of the bundled packages and is most likely located in /usr/bin. To find it on your system type:
$ which openssl
$ openssl version
OpenSSL 1.0.0a 1 Jun 2010
Versions may vary and currently openssl-1.0.0d Feb 8 is the current version. Most of the examples that are found in this document should work on most versions.
Base64 encoding and decoding can be performed alone or used in conjunction with encryption and decryption. Below we are encoding a file with base64:
$ openssl base64 -in text.txt -out text.3634
Now we are decoding it:
$ openssl base64 -d -in text.3634 -out text.txt
File name extensions are not relevant to OpenSSL and you can drop them.
Encrypt a file with any of the available ciphers:
$ openssl list-cipher-commands
This will list a number of ciphers to use. Now let's encrypt the file using triple DES in CBC “Cipher Block Chaining” mode using a prompted password:
$ openssl des3 -salt -in recept.pdf -out recept.des3
prompted for a password enter it twice. To decrypt the file using the supplied password
$ openssl des3 -d -salt -in recept.des3 -out recept.pdf -k password
enter des-ede3-cbc encryption password:
Verifying – enter des-ede3-cbc encryption password:
You can encrypt a file then base64 encode it using Blowfish in CBC mode using the following comamnd:
$ openssl bf -a -salt -in recept.pdf -out recept.bf
enter bf-cbc encryption password:
Verifying – enter bf-cbc encryption password:
Again the file extensions are not relevant and if you open the file with a gedit it will be a bunch of characters. OpenSSL won't manage the files and file extensions for you, you must specify where you want the outgoing data written. The reason to encrypt then encode and not the other way around is you want to have random data to encrypt and when you encode you are left with no random data. To decrypt us the following command:
$ openssl bf -d -salt -a -in recept001.bf -out recept001.pdf
enter bf-cbc decryption password:
Have strong password is important but like many discover its also difficult to maintain password different for many devices. The goal with password is to make a secret that you can remember but someone else wont know and cant guess. You can generate pass phrases with OpenSSL using this command:
$ openssl rand 20 -base64
This generates a random character that is 20 binary bytes with base64 encoding for a total of 28 characters.
Shadow-style password hash
OpenSSL has the ability for creating encrypted Linux passwords exactly like those make by /bin/passwd. Just enter in the following command:
$ openssl passwd -1 enter-in-text
Every time you enter the above it will produce a different hash, your hash will be different except for the $1$ in front. You can make a hash of your password that you choose without outputting the result to the screen like so:
$ openssl passwd -1
Verifying – Password
A checksum is a way of ensuring that data has not been corrupted, either accidentally or maliciously. OpenSSL uses md5 but the MD5 algorithm suffers from vulnerabilities and should not be used anymore. Instead use the more secure sha1sum (see Figure 1).
Notice the difference in hash output lengths.
OpenSSL is FIPS 140-2 Level 1 validation and is available for government cryptography. The FIPS 140-2 User Guide is available here updated November 21, 2009. This tool is available for use in the enterprise and with a little administration can provide a solution to many of your security requirements.
Let pbnetworks get your pen-test on target
Visit us and learn how http://pbnetworks.net
How secure is your network?
The Jevons Paradox suggests that when technological advances increase efficiency of a resource, it results in an overall increase in consumption. Writing on the increased use of coal as a result of technological improvements, 19th-century economist William Stanley Jevons found that these improvements led to the development of new ways to utilize coal. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Thiele, Chief Strategy Officer for Apcera, will compare the Jevons Paradox to modern-day enterprise IT, e...
Sep. 27, 2016 04:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,886
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
Sep. 27, 2016 04:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,970
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
Sep. 27, 2016 03:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,550
SYS-CON Events announced today that Bsquare has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For more than two decades, Bsquare has helped its customers extract business value from a broad array of physical assets by making them intelligent, connecting them, and using the data they generate to optimize business processes.
Sep. 27, 2016 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,751
There is growing need for data-driven applications and the need for digital platforms to build these apps. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Muddu Sudhakar, VP and GM of Security & IoT at Splunk, will cover different PaaS solutions and Big Data platforms that are available to build applications. In addition, AI and machine learning are creating new requirements that developers need in the building of next-gen apps. The next-generation digital platforms have some of the past platform needs a...
Sep. 27, 2016 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,795
SYS-CON Events announced today that ReadyTalk, a leading provider of online conferencing and webinar services, has been named Vendor Presentation Sponsor at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. ReadyTalk delivers audio and web conferencing services that inspire collaboration and enable the Future of Work for today’s increasingly digital and mobile workforce. By combining intuitive, innovative tec...
Sep. 27, 2016 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,931
Fact is, enterprises have significant legacy voice infrastructure that’s costly to replace with pure IP solutions. How can we bring this analog infrastructure into our shiny new cloud applications? There are proven methods to bind both legacy voice applications and traditional PSTN audio into cloud-based applications and services at a carrier scale. Some of the most successful implementations leverage WebRTC, WebSockets, SIP and other open source technologies. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Da...
Sep. 27, 2016 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,598
Cognitive Computing is becoming the foundation for a new generation of solutions that have the potential to transform business. Unlike traditional approaches to building solutions, a cognitive computing approach allows the data to help determine the way applications are designed. This contrasts with conventional software development that begins with defining logic based on the current way a business operates. In her session at 18th Cloud Expo, Judith S. Hurwitz, President and CEO of Hurwitz & ...
Sep. 27, 2016 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 3,037
Almost two-thirds of companies either have or soon will have IoT as the backbone of their business in 2016. However, IoT is far more complex than most firms expected. How can you not get trapped in the pitfalls? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tony Shan, a renowned visionary and thought leader, will introduce a holistic method of IoTification, which is the process of IoTifying the existing technology and business models to adopt and leverage IoT. He will drill down to the components in this fra...
Sep. 27, 2016 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,725
The Internet of Things can drive efficiency for airlines and airports. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Sudip Majumder, senior director of development at Oracle, will discuss the technical details of the connected airline baggage and related social media solutions. These IoT applications will enhance travelers' journey experience and drive efficiency for the airlines and the airports. The session will include a working demo and a technical d...
Sep. 27, 2016 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,729
I'm a lonely sensor. I spend all day telling the world how I'm feeling, but none of the other sensors seem to care. I want to be connected. I want to build relationships with other sensors to be more useful for my human. I want my human to understand that when my friends next door are too hot for a while, I'll soon be flaming. And when all my friends go outside without me, I may be left behind. Don't just log my data; use the relationship graph. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ryan Boyd, Engi...
Sep. 27, 2016 01:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,292
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pulzze Systems will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Pulzze Systems, Inc. provides infrastructure products for the Internet of Things to enable any connected device and system to carry out matched operations without programming. For more information, visit http://www.pulzzesystems.com.
Sep. 27, 2016 01:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,849
SYS-CON Events announced today that Numerex Corp, a leading provider of managed enterprise solutions enabling the Internet of Things (IoT), will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Numerex Corp. (NASDAQ:NMRX) is a leading provider of managed enterprise solutions enabling the Internet of Things (IoT). The Company's solutions produce new revenue streams or create operating...
Sep. 27, 2016 01:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,000
If you’re responsible for an application that depends on the data or functionality of various IoT endpoints – either sensors or devices – your brand reputation depends on the security, reliability, and compliance of its many integrated parts. If your application fails to deliver the expected business results, your customers and partners won't care if that failure stems from the code you developed or from a component that you integrated. What can you do to ensure that the endpoints work as expect...
Sep. 27, 2016 12:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,634
WebRTC adoption has generated a wave of creative uses of communications and collaboration through websites, sales apps, customer care and business applications. As WebRTC has become more mainstream it has evolved to use cases beyond the original peer-to-peer case, which has led to a repeating requirement for interoperability with existing infrastructures. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Graham Holt, Executive Vice President of Daitan Group, will cover implementation examples that have enabled ea...
Sep. 27, 2016 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,542
The Transparent Cloud-computing Consortium (abbreviation: T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data processing High speed and high quality networks, and dramatic improvements in computer processing capabilities, have greatly changed the nature of applications and made the storing and processing of data on the network commonplace.
Sep. 27, 2016 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,050
Major trends and emerging technologies – from virtual reality and IoT, to Big Data and algorithms – are helping organizations innovate in the digital era. However, to create real business value, IT must think beyond the ‘what’ of digital transformation to the ‘how’ to harness emerging trends, innovation and disruption. Architecture is the key that underpins and ties all these efforts together. In the digital age, it’s important to invest in architecture, extend the enterprise footprint to the cl...
Sep. 26, 2016 10:45 PM EDT Reads: 489
Fifty billion connected devices and still no winning protocols standards. HTTP, WebSockets, MQTT, and CoAP seem to be leading in the IoT protocol race at the moment but many more protocols are getting introduced on a regular basis. Each protocol has its pros and cons depending on the nature of the communications. Does there really need to be only one protocol to rule them all? Of course not. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, walk you through how Oct...
Sep. 26, 2016 08:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,171
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
Sep. 26, 2016 08:45 PM EDT Reads: 3,421
Vidyo, Inc., has joined the Alliance for Open Media. The Alliance for Open Media is a non-profit organization working to define and develop media technologies that address the need for an open standard for video compression and delivery over the web. As a member of the Alliance, Vidyo will collaborate with industry leaders in pursuit of an open and royalty-free AOMedia Video codec, AV1. Vidyo’s contributions to the organization will bring to bear its long history of expertise in codec technolo...
Sep. 26, 2016 05:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,626