|By AppDynamics Blog||
|March 13, 2014 11:30 AM EDT||
Are your applications moving to an elastic cloud infrastructure? The question is no longer if, but when – whether that is a public cloud, a private cloud, or a hybrid cloud.
Classic computing capacity models clearly indicate that over-provisioning is essential to keep up with peak loads of traffic while the over-provisioned capacity is largely left under-utilized during non-peak periods. Such over-provisioning and under-utilization can be avoided by moving to an elastic cloud-computing capacity model where just-in-time provisioning and deprovisioning can be achieved by automatically scaling up and down on-demand.
Cloud auto-scaling decisions are often made based on infrastructure metrics such as CPU Utilization. However, in a cloud or virtualized environment, infrastructure metrics may not be reliable enough for making auto-scaling decisions. Auto-scaling decisions based on application metrics, such as request-queue depth or requests per minute, are much more useful since the application is intimately familiar with conditions such as:
When the existing number of compute instances cannot handle the incoming arrival rate of traffic and must elastically scale up additional instances based on a high-watermark threshold on a given application metric
When it’s time to scale back down based on a low-watermark threshold on the same application metric.
Every application service can be expressed as a statistical model of traffic, queues and resources as shown in the diagram below.
For a given arrival rate λ, we need to maximize the service rate μ with an optimum value of n resources. Monitoring either the arrival rate λ itself for synchronous requests or q depth for asynchronous requests will help us tune the application system to see if we need additional service compute instances to meet the demands of the current arrival rate.
Having visibility into this data allows us not only to find bottlenecks in the code but also possibly flaws in design and architecture. AppDynamics provides visibility into these application metrics.
The basic flow for auto-scaling using AppDynamics is shown in the diagram below:
Let’s take an example to illustrate how this actually works in AppDynamics. ACME Corporation has a multi-tier distributed online bookstore application running on AWS EC2:
The front-end E-Commerce tier is experiencing a very heavy volume of requests resulting in the tier going into a Warning (Yellow) state.
Now we will walk through the 6 simple steps that the ACME Corporation will use to exploit the Cloud Auto Scaling features of AppDynamics.
Step 1: Enable display of Cloud Auto Scaling features
To do this, they first select “Setup-> My Preferences” and check the box to “Show Cloud Auto Scaling features” under “Advanced Features”:
Step 2: Define a Compute Cloud and an Image
Then they click on the Cloud Auto Scaling option at the bottom left of the screen:
Next, they click on Compute Clouds and register a new Compute Cloud:
and fill in their AWS EC2 account info and credentials:
Next, they register a new image from which new instances of the E-Commerce tier nodes can be spawned:
and provide the details of that machine image:
By using the Launch Instance button, they can manually test whether it was successfully launched.
Step 3: Define a scale-up and a scale-down workflow
Then, they define a scale-up workflow for the E-Commerce tier with a step to create a new compute instance from the AMI defined earlier:
Next, they define a scale-down workflow for the E-Commerce tier with a step to terminate a running compute instance from the same AMI:
Now, you may be wondering why these workflows are so simplistic and why there are no additional steps to rebalance the load-balancer after every new compute instance gets added or terminated. Well, the magic for that lies in the Ubuntu AMI that bootstraps the Tomcat JVM for the E-Commerce tier. It has the startup logic to automatically join the cluster and also has a shutdown-hook to automatically leave the cluster, by communicating directly with Apache load-balancer mod_proxy.
Step 4: Define an auto-scaling health rule
Now, they define an auto-scaling health rule for the E-Commerce tier:
and select the E-Commerce Server tier as the scope for the health rule:
and specify a Critical Condition as “Calls per Minute > 3500”, which in this case, represents the arrival rate λ:
and a Warning Condition of “Calls per Minute > 3000”:
Note: It is very important to choose the threshold values for Calls Per Minute in the Critical and Warning conditions very carefully, because failing to do so may result in scaling thrash.
Step 5: Define a scale-up policy
Now, they define a Scale Up Policy which will bind their newly defined Health Rule with a Cloud Auto-scaling action:
Step 6: Define a scale-down policy
Finally, they define another policy that will invoke the Scale-down workflow when the Health rule violation is resolved.
And they’re done!
After a period of time when the Calls per Minute exceeds the configured threshold, they actually witness that the Auto-scaling Health rule was violated, as it shows up under the Events list:
When they drill down into the event, they can see the details of the Health Rule violation:
And when they click on the Actions Executed for the Cloud Auto-Scaling Workflows, they see:
Also, under Workflow executions, they see:
and when they drill-down into it, they see:
Finally, under the Machines item under Cloud Auto Scaling, they can see the actual compute instance that was started as a result of Auto Scaling:
Thus, without any manual intervention, whenever the E-Commerce tier needs additional capacity indicated by the threshold of Calls Per Minute in the Auto-Scaling Health rule, it is automatically provisioned. Also, these additional instances are automatically released when the Calls Per Minute goes below that threshold.
AppDynamics has cloud connectors for all the major cloud providers:
- Amazon Web Services Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)
- Microsoft Windows Azure
- (Rackspace Public Cloud, Rackspace Private Cloud, HP Cloud Services, OpenStack Nova)
- Apache CloudStack
- VMWare vSphere
- VMWare vCloud Director
- Verizon Terremark
If you have your own cloud platform, you can always develop your own Cloud Connector using the AppDynamics Cloud Connector API and SDKs that are available via the AppDynamics Community. Find out more in the AppDynamics Connector Development Guide. Our cloud connector code is all open-source and can be found on GitHub.
Take five minutes to get complete visibility into the performance of your production applications with AppDynamics Pro today.
The post Cloud Auto Scaling using AppDynamics written by Pranta Das appeared first on Application Performance Monitoring Blog from AppDynamics.
"Once customers get a year into their IoT deployments, they start to realize that they may have been shortsighted in the ways they built out their deployment and the key thing I see a lot of people looking at is - how can I take equipment data, pull it back in an IoT solution and show it in a dashboard," stated Dave McCarthy, Director of Products at Bsquare Corporation, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Dec. 8, 2016 09:45 PM EST Reads: 1,233
What happens when the different parts of a vehicle become smarter than the vehicle itself? As we move toward the era of smart everything, hundreds of entities in a vehicle that communicate with each other, the vehicle and external systems create a need for identity orchestration so that all entities work as a conglomerate. Much like an orchestra without a conductor, without the ability to secure, control, and connect the link between a vehicle’s head unit, devices, and systems and to manage the ...
Dec. 8, 2016 09:15 PM EST Reads: 947
Complete Internet of Things (IoT) embedded device security is not just about the device but involves the entire product’s identity, data and control integrity, and services traversing the cloud. A device can no longer be looked at as an island; it is a part of a system. In fact, given the cross-domain interactions enabled by IoT it could be a part of many systems. Also, depending on where the device is deployed, for example, in the office building versus a factory floor or oil field, security ha...
Dec. 8, 2016 07:45 PM EST Reads: 311
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
Dec. 8, 2016 07:15 PM EST Reads: 370
Everyone knows that truly innovative companies learn as they go along, pushing boundaries in response to market changes and demands. What's more of a mystery is how to balance innovation on a fresh platform built from scratch with the legacy tech stack, product suite and customers that continue to serve as the business' foundation. In his General Session at 19th Cloud Expo, Michael Chambliss, Head of Engineering at ReadyTalk, discussed why and how ReadyTalk diverted from healthy revenue and mor...
Dec. 8, 2016 05:45 PM EST Reads: 1,719
As data explodes in quantity, importance and from new sources, the need for managing and protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and cloud environments grow with it. Managing data includes protecting it, indexing and classifying it for true, long-term management, compliance and E-Discovery. Commvault can ensure this with a single pane of glass solution – whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enter...
Dec. 8, 2016 05:00 PM EST Reads: 1,817
Financial Technology has become a topic of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 20th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York, June 6-8, 2017, will find fresh new content in a new track called FinTech.
Dec. 8, 2016 04:45 PM EST Reads: 2,249
You have great SaaS business app ideas. You want to turn your idea quickly into a functional and engaging proof of concept. You need to be able to modify it to meet customers' needs, and you need to deliver a complete and secure SaaS application. How could you achieve all the above and yet avoid unforeseen IT requirements that add unnecessary cost and complexity? You also want your app to be responsive in any device at any time. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Allen, General Manager of...
Dec. 8, 2016 04:45 PM EST Reads: 1,846
The 20th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Containers, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal ...
Dec. 8, 2016 04:15 PM EST Reads: 2,315
Bert Loomis was a visionary. This general session will highlight how Bert Loomis and people like him inspire us to build great things with small inventions. In their general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Architect at IBM Bluemix, and Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at Nvidia, discussed the accelerating pace of AI development and how IBM Cloud and NVIDIA are partnering to bring AI capabilities to "every day," on-demand. They also reviewed two "free infrastructure" pr...
Dec. 8, 2016 03:30 PM EST Reads: 1,241
Unsecured IoT devices were used to launch crippling DDOS attacks in October 2016, targeting services such as Twitter, Spotify, and GitHub. Subsequent testimony to Congress about potential attacks on office buildings, schools, and hospitals raised the possibility for the IoT to harm and even kill people. What should be done? Does the government need to intervene? This panel at @ThingExpo New York brings together leading IoT and security experts to discuss this very serious topic.
Dec. 8, 2016 03:00 PM EST Reads: 530
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
Dec. 8, 2016 02:30 PM EST Reads: 934
"Dice has been around for the last 20 years. We have been helping tech professionals find new jobs and career opportunities," explained Manish Dixit, VP of Product and Engineering at Dice, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 19th Cloud Expo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Dec. 8, 2016 02:15 PM EST Reads: 1,193
"ReadyTalk is an audio and web video conferencing provider. We've really come to embrace WebRTC as the platform for our future of technology," explained Dan Cunningham, CTO of ReadyTalk, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at WebRTC Summit at 19th Cloud Expo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Dec. 8, 2016 01:45 PM EST Reads: 796
"At ROHA we develop an app called Catcha. It was developed after we spent a year meeting with, talking to, interacting with senior citizens watching them use their smartphones and talking to them about how they use their smartphones so we could get to know their smartphone behavior," explained Dave Woods, Chief Innovation Officer at ROHA, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 19th Cloud Expo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Dec. 8, 2016 01:45 PM EST Reads: 777
WebRTC is the future of browser-to-browser communications, and continues to make inroads into the traditional, difficult, plug-in web communications world. The 6th WebRTC Summit continues our tradition of delivering the latest and greatest presentations within the world of WebRTC. Topics include voice calling, video chat, P2P file sharing, and use cases that have already leveraged the power and convenience of WebRTC.
Dec. 8, 2016 12:45 PM EST Reads: 1,753
The many IoT deployments around the world are busy integrating smart devices and sensors into their enterprise IT infrastructures. Yet all of this technology – and there are an amazing number of choices – is of no use without the software to gather, communicate, and analyze the new data flows. Without software, there is no IT. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products at Bsquare Corporation; Alan Williamson, Principal...
Dec. 8, 2016 12:00 PM EST Reads: 537
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Dec. 8, 2016 11:30 AM EST Reads: 2,349
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
Dec. 8, 2016 10:30 AM EST Reads: 7,330
An IoT product’s log files speak volumes about what’s happening with your products in the field, pinpointing current and potential issues, and enabling you to predict failures and save millions of dollars in inventory. But until recently, no one knew how to listen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dan Gettens, Chief Research Officer at OnProcess, discussed recent research by Massachusetts Institute of Technology and OnProcess Technology, where MIT created a new, breakthrough analytics model for ...
Dec. 8, 2016 10:30 AM EST Reads: 576