|By AppDynamics Blog||
|March 13, 2014 11:30 AM EDT||
Are your applications moving to an elastic cloud infrastructure? The question is no longer if, but when – whether that is a public cloud, a private cloud, or a hybrid cloud.
Classic computing capacity models clearly indicate that over-provisioning is essential to keep up with peak loads of traffic while the over-provisioned capacity is largely left under-utilized during non-peak periods. Such over-provisioning and under-utilization can be avoided by moving to an elastic cloud-computing capacity model where just-in-time provisioning and deprovisioning can be achieved by automatically scaling up and down on-demand.
Cloud auto-scaling decisions are often made based on infrastructure metrics such as CPU Utilization. However, in a cloud or virtualized environment, infrastructure metrics may not be reliable enough for making auto-scaling decisions. Auto-scaling decisions based on application metrics, such as request-queue depth or requests per minute, are much more useful since the application is intimately familiar with conditions such as:
When the existing number of compute instances cannot handle the incoming arrival rate of traffic and must elastically scale up additional instances based on a high-watermark threshold on a given application metric
When it’s time to scale back down based on a low-watermark threshold on the same application metric.
Every application service can be expressed as a statistical model of traffic, queues and resources as shown in the diagram below.
For a given arrival rate λ, we need to maximize the service rate μ with an optimum value of n resources. Monitoring either the arrival rate λ itself for synchronous requests or q depth for asynchronous requests will help us tune the application system to see if we need additional service compute instances to meet the demands of the current arrival rate.
Having visibility into this data allows us not only to find bottlenecks in the code but also possibly flaws in design and architecture. AppDynamics provides visibility into these application metrics.
The basic flow for auto-scaling using AppDynamics is shown in the diagram below:
Let’s take an example to illustrate how this actually works in AppDynamics. ACME Corporation has a multi-tier distributed online bookstore application running on AWS EC2:
The front-end E-Commerce tier is experiencing a very heavy volume of requests resulting in the tier going into a Warning (Yellow) state.
Now we will walk through the 6 simple steps that the ACME Corporation will use to exploit the Cloud Auto Scaling features of AppDynamics.
Step 1: Enable display of Cloud Auto Scaling features
To do this, they first select “Setup-> My Preferences” and check the box to “Show Cloud Auto Scaling features” under “Advanced Features”:
Step 2: Define a Compute Cloud and an Image
Then they click on the Cloud Auto Scaling option at the bottom left of the screen:
Next, they click on Compute Clouds and register a new Compute Cloud:
and fill in their AWS EC2 account info and credentials:
Next, they register a new image from which new instances of the E-Commerce tier nodes can be spawned:
and provide the details of that machine image:
By using the Launch Instance button, they can manually test whether it was successfully launched.
Step 3: Define a scale-up and a scale-down workflow
Then, they define a scale-up workflow for the E-Commerce tier with a step to create a new compute instance from the AMI defined earlier:
Next, they define a scale-down workflow for the E-Commerce tier with a step to terminate a running compute instance from the same AMI:
Now, you may be wondering why these workflows are so simplistic and why there are no additional steps to rebalance the load-balancer after every new compute instance gets added or terminated. Well, the magic for that lies in the Ubuntu AMI that bootstraps the Tomcat JVM for the E-Commerce tier. It has the startup logic to automatically join the cluster and also has a shutdown-hook to automatically leave the cluster, by communicating directly with Apache load-balancer mod_proxy.
Step 4: Define an auto-scaling health rule
Now, they define an auto-scaling health rule for the E-Commerce tier:
and select the E-Commerce Server tier as the scope for the health rule:
and specify a Critical Condition as “Calls per Minute > 3500”, which in this case, represents the arrival rate λ:
and a Warning Condition of “Calls per Minute > 3000”:
Note: It is very important to choose the threshold values for Calls Per Minute in the Critical and Warning conditions very carefully, because failing to do so may result in scaling thrash.
Step 5: Define a scale-up policy
Now, they define a Scale Up Policy which will bind their newly defined Health Rule with a Cloud Auto-scaling action:
Step 6: Define a scale-down policy
Finally, they define another policy that will invoke the Scale-down workflow when the Health rule violation is resolved.
And they’re done!
After a period of time when the Calls per Minute exceeds the configured threshold, they actually witness that the Auto-scaling Health rule was violated, as it shows up under the Events list:
When they drill down into the event, they can see the details of the Health Rule violation:
And when they click on the Actions Executed for the Cloud Auto-Scaling Workflows, they see:
Also, under Workflow executions, they see:
and when they drill-down into it, they see:
Finally, under the Machines item under Cloud Auto Scaling, they can see the actual compute instance that was started as a result of Auto Scaling:
Thus, without any manual intervention, whenever the E-Commerce tier needs additional capacity indicated by the threshold of Calls Per Minute in the Auto-Scaling Health rule, it is automatically provisioned. Also, these additional instances are automatically released when the Calls Per Minute goes below that threshold.
AppDynamics has cloud connectors for all the major cloud providers:
- Amazon Web Services Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)
- Microsoft Windows Azure
- (Rackspace Public Cloud, Rackspace Private Cloud, HP Cloud Services, OpenStack Nova)
- Apache CloudStack
- VMWare vSphere
- VMWare vCloud Director
- Verizon Terremark
If you have your own cloud platform, you can always develop your own Cloud Connector using the AppDynamics Cloud Connector API and SDKs that are available via the AppDynamics Community. Find out more in the AppDynamics Connector Development Guide. Our cloud connector code is all open-source and can be found on GitHub.
Take five minutes to get complete visibility into the performance of your production applications with AppDynamics Pro today.
The post Cloud Auto Scaling using AppDynamics written by Pranta Das appeared first on Application Performance Monitoring Blog from AppDynamics.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Kausik Sridharabalan, founder and CTO of Pulzze Systems, Inc., will focus on key challenges in building an Internet of Things solution infrastructure. He will shed light on efficient ways of defining interactions within IoT solutions, leading to cost and time reduction. He will also introduce ways to handle data and how one can develop IoT solutions that are lean, flexible and configurable, thus making IoT infrastructure agile and scalable.
Sep. 30, 2016 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,634
SYS-CON Events announced today that Numerex Corp, a leading provider of managed enterprise solutions enabling the Internet of Things (IoT), will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Numerex Corp. (NASDAQ:NMRX) is a leading provider of managed enterprise solutions enabling the Internet of Things (IoT). The Company's solutions produce new revenue streams or create operating...
Sep. 30, 2016 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,074
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
Sep. 30, 2016 12:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,974
Fifty billion connected devices and still no winning protocols standards. HTTP, WebSockets, MQTT, and CoAP seem to be leading in the IoT protocol race at the moment but many more protocols are getting introduced on a regular basis. Each protocol has its pros and cons depending on the nature of the communications. Does there really need to be only one protocol to rule them all? Of course not. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, walk you through how Oct...
Sep. 30, 2016 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,376
IoT is fundamentally transforming the auto industry, turning the vehicle into a hub for connected services, including safety, infotainment and usage-based insurance. Auto manufacturers – and businesses across all verticals – have built an entire ecosystem around the Connected Car, creating new customer touch points and revenue streams. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Macario Namie, Head of IoT Strategy at Cisco Jasper, will share real-world examples of how IoT transforms the car from a static p...
Sep. 30, 2016 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,675
Web Real-Time Communication APIs have quickly revolutionized what browsers are capable of. In addition to video and audio streams, we can now bi-directionally send arbitrary data over WebRTC's PeerConnection Data Channels. With the advent of Progressive Web Apps and new hardware APIs such as WebBluetooh and WebUSB, we can finally enable users to stitch together the Internet of Things directly from their browsers while communicating privately and securely in a decentralized way.
Sep. 29, 2016 11:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,211
"My role is working with customers, helping them go through this digital transformation. I spend a lot of time talking to banks, big industries, manufacturers working through how they are integrating and transforming their IT platforms and moving them forward," explained William Morrish, General Manager Product Sales at Interoute, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Sep. 29, 2016 10:30 PM EDT Reads: 4,055
The Internet of Things can drive efficiency for airlines and airports. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Sudip Majumder, senior director of development at Oracle, will discuss the technical details of the connected airline baggage and related social media solutions. These IoT applications will enhance travelers' journey experience and drive efficiency for the airlines and the airports. The session will include a working demo and a technical d...
Sep. 29, 2016 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,813
Developing software for the Internet of Things (IoT) comes with its own set of challenges. Security, privacy, and unified standards are a few key issues. In addition, each IoT product is comprised of (at least) three separate application components: the software embedded in the device, the back-end service, and the mobile application for the end user’s controls. Each component is developed by a different team, using different technologies and practices, and deployed to a different stack/target –...
Sep. 29, 2016 08:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,553
Why do your mobile transformations need to happen today? Mobile is the strategy that enterprise transformation centers on to drive customer engagement. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Roger Woods, Director, Mobile Product & Strategy – Adobe Marketing Cloud, covered key IoT and mobile trends that are forcing mobile transformation, key components of a solid mobile strategy and explored how brands are effectively driving mobile change throughout the enterprise.
Sep. 29, 2016 08:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,222
Identity is in everything and customers are looking to their providers to ensure the security of their identities, transactions and data. With the increased reliance on cloud-based services, service providers must build security and trust into their offerings, adding value to customers and improving the user experience. Making identity, security and privacy easy for customers provides a unique advantage over the competition.
Sep. 29, 2016 06:15 PM EDT Reads: 3,724
SYS-CON Events announced today that Commvault, a global leader in enterprise data protection and information management, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Commvault is a leading provider of data protection and information management solutions, helping companies worldwide activate their data to drive more value and business insight and to transform moder...
Sep. 29, 2016 05:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,861
SYS-CON Events has announced today that Roger Strukhoff has been named conference chair of Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 19th Cloud Expo and 6th @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "The Internet of Things brings trillions of dollars of opportunity to developers and enterprise IT, no matter how you measure it," stated Roger Strukhoff. "More importantly, it leverages the power of devices and the Interne...
Sep. 29, 2016 04:45 PM EDT Reads: 3,473
Personalization has long been the holy grail of marketing. Simply stated, communicate the most relevant offer to the right person and you will increase sales. To achieve this, you must understand the individual. Consequently, digital marketers developed many ways to gather and leverage customer information to deliver targeted experiences. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lou Casal, Founder and Principal Consultant at Practicala, discussed how the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated our abil...
Sep. 29, 2016 04:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,805
Digital innovation is the next big wave of business transformation based on digital technologies of which IoT and Big Data are key components, For example: Business boundary innovation is a challenge to excavate third-party business value using IoT and BigData, like Nest Business structure innovation may propose re-building business structure from scratch, as Uber does in the taxicab industry The social model innovation is also a big challenge to the new social architecture with the design fr...
Sep. 29, 2016 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,352
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, provided tips on how to be successful in large scale machine learning...
Sep. 29, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,420
If you had a chance to enter on the ground level of the largest e-commerce market in the world – would you? China is the world’s most populated country with the second largest economy and the world’s fastest growing market. It is estimated that by 2018 the Chinese market will be reaching over $30 billion in gaming revenue alone. Admittedly for a foreign company, doing business in China can be challenging. Often changing laws, administrative regulations and the often inscrutable Chinese Interne...
Sep. 29, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 492
Data is an unusual currency; it is not restricted by the same transactional limitations as money or people. In fact, the more that you leverage your data across multiple business use cases, the more valuable it becomes to the organization. And the same can be said about the organization’s analytics. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bill Schmarzo, CTO for the Big Data Practice at EMC, will introduce a methodology for capturing, enriching and sharing data (and analytics) across the organizati...
Sep. 29, 2016 03:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,801
Internet of @ThingsExpo has announced today that Chris Matthieu has been named tech chair of Internet of @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 6thInternet of @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Sep. 29, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,869
SYS-CON Events announced today that Bsquare has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For more than two decades, Bsquare has helped its customers extract business value from a broad array of physical assets by making them intelligent, connecting them, and using the data they generate to optimize business processes.
Sep. 29, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,981