Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Linux Authors: AppDynamics Blog, Carmen Gonzalez, Roger Strukhoff, Pat Romanski, Hovhannes Avoyan

Related Topics: DevOps Journal, Java, Microservices Journal, Linux, Cloud Expo, Big Data Journal

DevOps Journal: Blog Post

Software Quality Metrics for Your Continuous Delivery Pipeline | Part 3

It is safe to say that insightful logging and performance are two opposite goals

Let me ask you a question: would you say that you have implemented logging correctly for your application? Correct in the sense that it will provide you with all the insights you require to keep your business going once your users are struck by errors? And in a way that does not adversely impact your application performance? Honestly, I bet you have not. Today I will explain why you should turn off logging completely in production because of its limitations:

  • Relies on Developers
  • Lacks Context
  • Impacts Performance

Intrigued? Bear with me and I will show you how you can still establish and maintain a healthy and useful logging strategy for your deployment pipeline, from development to production, guided by metrics.

What Logging Can Do for You
Developers, including myself, often write log messages because they are lazy. Why should I set a breakpoint and fire up a debugger if it is so much more convenient to dump something to my console via a simple println()? This simple yet effective mechanism also works on headless machines where no IDE is installed, such as staging or production environments:

System.out.println("Been here, done that.");

Careful coders would use a logger to prevent random debug messages from appearing in production logs and additionally use guard statements to prevent unnecessary parameter construction:

if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
logger.debug("Entry number: " + i + " is " + String.valueOf(entry[i]));
}

Anyways, the point about logging is that that traces of log messages allow developers to better understand what their program is doing in execution. Does my program take this branch or that branch? Which statements were executed before that exception was thrown? I have done this at least a million of times, and most likely so have you:

if (condition) {
logger.debug("7: yeah!")
} else {
logger.debug("8: DAMN!!!")
}

Test Automation Engineers, usually developers by trade, equally use logging to better understand how the code under test complies with their test scenarios:

class AgentSpec extends spock.lang.Specification {

def "Agent.compute()"() {
def agent = AgentPool.getAgent()

when:
def result = agent.compute(TestFixtures.getData())

then:
logger.debug("result: "  + result);
result == expected
}
}

Logging is, undoubtedly, a helpful tool during development and I would argue that developers should use it as freely as possible if it helps them to understand and troubleshoot their code.

In production, application logging is useful for tracking certain events, such as the occurrence of a particular exception, but it usually fails to deliver what it is so often mistakenly used for: as a mechanism for analyzing application failures in production. Why?

Because approaches to achieving this goal with logging are naturally brittle: their usefulness depends heavily on developers, messages are without context, and if not designed carefully, logging may severely slow down your application.

Secretly, what you are really hoping to get from your application logs, in the one or the other form, is something like this:

A logging strategy that delivers out-of-the-box using dynaTrace: user context, all relevant data in place, zero config

The Limits of Logging
Logging Relies on Developers
Let's face it: logging is, inherently, a developer-centric mechanism. The usefulness of your application logs stands and falls with your developers. A best practice for logging in production says: "don't log too much" (see Optimal Logging @ Google testing blog). This sounds sensible, but what does this actually mean? If we recall the basic motivation behind logging in production, we could equally rephrase this as "log just enough information you need to know about a failure that enables you to take adequate actions". So, what would it take your developers to provide such actionable insights? Developers would need to correctly anticipate where in the code errors would occur in production. They would also need to collect any relevant bits of information along an execution path that bear these insights and, last but not least, present them in a meaningful way so that others can understand, too. Developers are, no doubt, a critical factor to the practicality of your application logs.

Logging Lacks Context
Logging during development is so helpful because developers and testers usually examine smaller, co-located units of code that are executed in a single thread. It is fairly easy to maintain an overview under such simulated conditions, such as a test scenario:

13:49:59 INFO com.company.product.users.UserManager - Registered user ‘foo'.
13:49:59 INFO com.company.product.users.UserManager - User ‘foo' has logged in.
13:49:59 INFO com.company.product.users.UserManager - User ‘foo' has logged out.

But how can you reliably identify an entire failing user transaction in a real-life scenario, that is, in a heavily multi-threaded environment with multiple tiers that serve piles of distributed log files? I say, hardly at all. Sure, you can go mine for certain isolated events, but you cannot easily extract causal relationships from an incoherent, distributed set of log messages:

13:49:59 INFO com.company.product.users.UserManager - User ‘foo' has logged in.
13:49:59 INFO com.company.product.users.UserManager - User ‘bar' has logged in.
...
13:49:60 SEVERE org.hibernate.exception.JDBCConnectionException: could not execute query
at org.hibernate.exception.SQLStateConverter.convert(SQLStateConverter.java:99)
...

After all, the ability to identify such contexts is key to deciding why a particular user action failed.

Logging Impacts Performance
What is a thorough logging strategy worth if your users cannot use your application because it is terribly slow? In case you did not know, logging, especially during peak load times, may severely slow down your application. Let's have a quick look at some of the reasons:

Writing log messages from the application's memory to persistent storage, usually to the file system, demands substantial I/O (see Top Performance Mistakes when moving from Test to Production: Excessive Logging). Traditional logger implementations wrote files by issuing synchronous I/O requests, which put the calling thread into a wait state until the log message was fully written to disk.

In some cases, the logger itself may cause a decent bottle-neck: in the Log4j library (up to version 1.2), every single log activity results in a call to an internal template method Appender.doAppend() that is synchronized for thread-safety (see Multithreading issues - doAppend is synchronised?). The practical implication of this is that threads, which log to the same Appender, for example a FileAppender, must queue up with any other threads writing logs. Consequently, the application spends valuable time waiting in synchronization instead of doing whatever the app was actually designed to do. This will hurt performance, especially in heavily multi-thread environments like web application servers.

These performance effects can be vastly amplified when exception logging comes into play: exception data, such as error message, stack trace and any other piggy-backed exceptions ("initial cause exceptions") greatly increase the amount of data that needs to be logged. Additionally, once a system is in a faulty state, the same exceptions tend to appear over and over again, further hurting application performance. We had once monitored a 30% drawdown on CPU resources due to more than 180,000 exceptions being thrown in only 5 minutes on one of our application servers (see Performance Impact of Exceptions: Why Ops, Test and Dev need to care). If we had written these exceptions to the file system, they would have trashed I/O, filled up our disk space in no time and had considerably increased our response times.

Subsequently, it is safe to say that insightful logging and performance are two opposite goals: if you want the one, then you have to make a compromise on the other.

For more logging tips click here for the full article.

More Stories By Martin Etmajer

Martin Etmajer has 10+ years of experience as a developer and software architect, as well as in maintaining highly available and performant cluster environments. In his current role, Martin works as a Technology Strategist for Dynatrace with a focus on Continuous Delivery and DevOps. He speaks at technology conferences and meetups and publishes articles on this blog. Reach him at @metmajer

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Intelligent Systems Services will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Established in 1994, Intelligent Systems Services Inc. is located near Washington, DC, with representatives and partners nationwide. ISS’s well-established track record is based on the continuous pursuit of excellence in designing, implementing and supporting nationwide clients’ mission-critical systems. ISS has completed many successful projects in Healthcare, Commercial, Manufacturing, ...
“With easy-to-use SDKs for Atmel’s platforms, IoT developers can now reap the benefits of realtime communication, and bypass the security pitfalls and configuration complexities that put IoT deployments at risk,” said Todd Greene, founder & CEO of PubNub. PubNub will team with Atmel at CES 2015 to launch full SDK support for Atmel’s MCU, MPU, and Wireless SoC platforms. Atmel developers now have access to PubNub’s secure Publish/Subscribe messaging with guaranteed ¼ second latencies across PubNub’s 14 global points-of-presence. PubNub delivers secure communication through firewalls, proxy ser...
SYS-CON Events announced today that B2Cloud, a provider of enterprise resource planning software, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. B2cloud develops the software you need. They have the ideal tools to help you work with your clients. B2Cloud’s main solutions include AGIS – ERP, CLOHC, AGIS – Invoice, and IZUM
SYS-CON Events announced today that Tufin, the market-leading provider of Security Policy Orchestration Solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. As the market leader of Security Policy Orchestration, Tufin automates and accelerates network configuration changes while maintaining security and compliance. Tufin's award-winning Orchestration Suite™ gives IT organizations the power and agility to enforce security policy across complex, multi-vendor enterprise networks. With more than 1...
VoxImplant has announced full WebRTC support in the newest versions of its Android SDK and iOS SDK. The updated SDKs, which enable audio and video calls on mobile devices, are now compatible with the WebRTC standard to allow any mobile app to communicate with WebRTC-enabled browsers, including Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, and, when available, Microsoft Spartan. The WebRTC-updated SDKs represent VoxImplant's continued leadership in simplifying the development of real-time communications (RTC) services for app developers. VoxImplant (built by Zingaya, the real-time communication servi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudian, Inc., the leading provider of hybrid cloud storage solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloudian, Inc., is a Foster City, California - based software company specializing in cloud storage software. The main product is Cloudian, an Amazon S3-compliant cloud object storage platform, the bedrock of cloud computing systems, that enables cloud service providers and enterprises to build reliable, affordable and scalable cloud storage solu...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Gridstore™, the leader in hyper-converged infrastructure purpose-built to optimize Microsoft workloads, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Gridstore™ is the leader in hyper-converged infrastructure purpose-built for Microsoft workloads and designed to accelerate applications in virtualized environments. Gridstore’s hyper-converged infrastructure is the industry’s first all flash version of HyperConverged Appliances that include both compute and storag...
SYS-CON Events announced today that IDenticard will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. IDenticard™ is the security division of Brady Corp (NYSE: BRC), a $1.5 billion manufacturer of identification products. We have small-company values with the strength and stability of a major corporation. IDenticard offers local sales, support and service to our customers across the United States and Canada. Our partner network encompasses some 300 of the world's leading systems integrators and security s...
SYS-CON Events announced today the IoT Bootcamp – Jumpstart Your IoT Strategy, being held June 9–10, 2015, in conjunction with 16th Cloud Expo and Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Javits Center in New York City. This is your chance to jumpstart your IoT strategy. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but includes hands-on demos and walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of Do-It-Yourself IoT platforms including Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone, Spark and Intel Edison. You will also get an overview of cloud technologies s...
“In the past year we've seen a lot of stabilization of WebRTC. You can now use it in production with a far greater degree of certainty. A lot of the real developments in the past year have been in things like the data channel, which will enable a whole new type of application," explained Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
The best mobile applications are augmented by dedicated servers, the Internet and Cloud services. Mobile developers should focus on one thing: writing the next socially disruptive viral app. Thanks to the cloud, they can focus on the overall solution, not the underlying plumbing. From iOS to Android and Windows, developers can leverage cloud services to create a common cross-platform backend to persist user settings, app data, broadcast notifications, run jobs, etc. This session provides a high level technical overview of many cloud services available to mobile app developers, includi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ciqada will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Ciqada™ makes it easy to connect your products to the Internet. By integrating key components - hardware, servers, dashboards, and mobile apps - into an easy-to-use, configurable system, your products can quickly and securely join the internet of things. With remote monitoring, control, and alert messaging capability, you will meet your customers' needs of tomorrow - today! Ciqada. Let your products take flight. For more inform...
Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York June 9-11 will find fresh new content in a new track called PaaS | Containers & Microservices Containers are not being considered for the first time by the cloud community, but a current era of re-consideration has pushed them to the top of the cloud agenda. With the launch of Docker's initial release in March of 2013, interest was revved up several notches. Then late last...
Health care systems across the globe are under enormous strain, as facilities reach capacity and costs continue to rise. M2M and the Internet of Things have the potential to transform the industry through connected health solutions that can make care more efficient while reducing costs. In fact, Vodafone's annual M2M Barometer Report forecasts M2M applications rising to 57 percent in health care and life sciences by 2016. Lively is one of Vodafone's health care partners, whose solutions enable older adults to live independent lives while staying connected to loved ones. M2M will continue to gr...
Dave will share his insights on how Internet of Things for Enterprises are transforming and making more productive and efficient operations and maintenance (O&M) procedures in the cleantech industry and beyond. Speaker Bio: Dave Landa is chief operating officer of Cybozu Corp (kintone US). Based in the San Francisco Bay Area, Dave has been on the forefront of the Cloud revolution driving strategic business development on the executive teams of multiple leading Software as a Services (SaaS) application providers dating back to 2004. Cybozu's kintone.com is a leading global BYOA (Build Your O...
While not quite mainstream yet, WebRTC is starting to gain ground with Carriers, Enterprises and Independent Software Vendors (ISV’s) alike. WebRTC makes it easy for developers to add audio and video communications into their applications by using Web browsers as their platform. But like any market, every customer engagement has unique requirements, as well as constraints. And of course, one size does not fit all. In her session at WebRTC Summit, Dr. Natasha Tamaskar, Vice President, Head of Cloud and Mobile Strategy at GENBAND, will explore what is needed to take a real time communications ...
SYS-CON Media announced today that @WebRTCSummit Blog, the largest WebRTC resource in the world, has been launched. @WebRTCSummit Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @WebRTCSummit Blog can be bookmarked ▸ Here @WebRTCSummit conference site can be bookmarked ▸ Here
SYS-CON Events announced today that GENBAND, a leading developer of real time communications software solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's WebRTC Summit, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The GENBAND team will be on hand to demonstrate their newest product, Kandy. Kandy is a communications Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) that enables companies to seamlessly integrate more human communications into their Web and mobile applications - creating more engaging experiences for their customers and boosting collaboration and productiv...
SYS-CON Events announced today that BroadSoft, the leading global provider of Unified Communications and Collaboration (UCC) services to operators worldwide, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's WebRTC Summit, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. BroadSoft is the leading provider of software and services that enable mobile, fixed-line and cable service providers to offer Unified Communications over their Internet Protocol networks. The Company’s core communications platform enables the delivery of a range of enterprise and consumer calling...
What exactly is a cognitive application? In her session at 16th Cloud Expo, Ashley Hathaway, Product Manager at IBM Watson, will look at the services being offered by the IBM Watson Developer Cloud and what that means for developers and Big Data. She'll explore how IBM Watson and its partnerships will continue to grow and help define what it means to be a cognitive service, as well as take a look at the offerings on Bluemix. She will also check out how Watson and the Alchemy API team up to offer disruptive APIs to developers.