Click here to close now.




















Welcome!

Linux Containers Authors: Roger Strukhoff, Liz McMillan, AppDynamics Blog, SmartBear Blog, Elizabeth White

Related Topics: Linux Containers

Linux Containers: Article

Book Rookery: High Performance MySQL

Sharing lessons learned over time

In this installment of the Book Rookery, High Performance MySQL authors Jeremy Zawodny and Derek J. Balling share some of the MySQL lessons they've learned over the years and offer insight into the performance gains possible when you use the techniques covered in the book.

What kinds of applications do people use MySQL for? Is it really free?

People are using MySQL in all types of applications, both personal and corporate, from "quickie one-off applications" to helping power Sabre's ticketing reservation system.

For almost all users, it really is free, since it is released under the GPL. There has been some confusion about licensing issues, namely commercial versus noncommercial use and what constitutes "redistribution." Their Web site likes to make the analogy "If you make money, you need a license," which is simply not the case, since the GPL'ed code is free for use in both commercial and noncommercial applications. The only time it would not be free is if you intend to redistribute code based on the MySQL code, and don't intend to release your own code as open source. In that case, you would need to purchase a commercial license from MySQL AB, to permit you to redistribute binary-only versions of your derivative work. For almost all Web-based applications, though, that restriction is moot since you almost never redistribute your code to an outside party.

And, in reality, most companies will buy a support agreement for the software, which helps to ensure they get help when needed and MySQL AB is able to stay in business.

Can you tell us more about the intention of the book and what's covered inside?

Jeremy first conceived the book when he was encountering growth problems while deploying MySQL at Yahoo. They weren't necessarily "MySQL problems," per se, but they were gotchas and best-practice configurations that hadn't really been documented anywhere (or at least not very well). Our book was conceived as a place to write down the lessons learned over time, and try to put them all in one place so that future administrators didn't have to scour the Web, or mailing lists, or even worse, try to pick through the source code, in order to find the answer to their problem.

We cover a wide range of topics, starting from baseline decisions like "what storage engine should I use for my data," and progressing further into query optimization, hardware configurations, replication, and load balancing. We also touch on, because it's important, the security and backup situations that a large installation will encounter.

How much of a performance increase do you think you can make through using the techniques outlined in your book?

That depends a great deal on what you're starting out with in the first place. If you've got a fairly well-designed database, on decent hardware, maybe you don't see much improvement at all. On the other hand, if you're like many installations where MySQL made its inroads "through the back door," and there's not been a lot of formal DBA experience in the organization, it's possible the optimizations we discuss can give you performance increases of several thousand percent.

If you could only tweak one system within MySQL to get the best performance, what would you tweak?

The key_buffer setting for the MyISAM storage engine. Once you set up the correct indexes, MySQL needs sufficient memory to keep the most actively used indexes cached in memory. For primarily InnoDB users, the answer is the innodb_buffer_pool for very similar reasons.

You must have experienced lots of different databases of information over the years - what was your favorite use for a database system?

That's a tough one. I (Jeremy) really like the aviation database that Jeremy Cole (MySQL AB's training manager) has been building. He's combined freely available information from the FAA and NTSB with MySQL and a simple Web interface in a way that brings together previously separate and hard-to-find information. If you want to know which airports or airlines experience the most delays, it'll tell you. If you want to know what types of planes American Eagle flies, it'll tell you.

What is the relative performance using the various underlying database technologies with MySQL (InnoDB vs ISAM, etc.)?

That's going to depend a great deal on the type of data you have, how you access it (write once read often? write often read seldom?), and how complex your needs are (for example, do you need transactions, or are you just simply using the database as your Apache server log?).

Do you believe that MySQL can compete with more commercial systems, like SQL Server?

Over time, yes. MySQL doesn't have all the bells and whistles that SQL Serve, Oracle, or DB2 have. But what it lacks in features it generally makes up for in simplicity and raw performance, both of which often translate into cost savings.

As times goes on, MySQL will get closer and closer to the "big name" databases.

How much of a performance hit is there in using a remote database versus a local one via sockets?

If the "remote" database is fairly close, on a network-scale the performance impact is pretty marginal (a few milliseconds). Most of the bottlenecks in MySQL (or any database, really) are in disk accesses - how quickly can the database engine find the right spot on the disk to give you the information you asked for. Almost everything you optimize in a database server centers around speeding up that basic act. The added time for accessing a database via TCP/IP instead of via a Unix socket, is fairly negligible. If you have the server truly "remote" (like, the other side of the country), then you might have issues with network latency.

What is your favorite cartoon daily?

Derek says: Depending on my mood, either "Dilbert" or "Doonesbury"... I guess it just depends on which is frustrating me more lately, work or politics.

Jeremy says: "Dilbert" or "The Far Side," which is sadly no longer being written.

About the Authors
Jeremy Zawodny is Yahoo's resident MySQL Geek and the lead author of High Performance MySQL. He lives in San Jose, California and flies gliders around Northern California and Nevada in his spare time. He also maintains a Weblog at http://jeremy.zawodny.com/blog.

Derek J. Balling has been a Perl programmer and Unix/Linux system administrator since 1996, having helped build two different ISPs from the ground up in the midwestern United States. He spent several years of his career at Yahoo!, working in their Infrastructure Group, where he worked on tools to help improve system uptime. He presently works at a healthcare supply company, helping infiltrate the open source virus into their infrastructure.

More Stories By Martin C. Brown

Martin C. Brown is a former IT director with experience in cross-platform integration. A keen developer, he has produced dynamic sites for blue-chip customers, including HP and Oracle, and is the technical director of Foodware.net. Now a freelance writer and consultant, MC, as he is better known, works closely with Microsoft as an SME; has a regular column on both ServerWatch.com and IBM's DeveloperWorks Grid Computing site; is a core member of the AnswerSquad.com team; and has written books such as XML Processing with Perl, Python and PHP, and the Microsoft IIS 6 Delta Guide.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
For IoT to grow as quickly as analyst firms’ project, a lot is going to fall on developers to quickly bring applications to market. But the lack of a standard development platform threatens to slow growth and make application development more time consuming and costly, much like we’ve seen in the mobile space. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Weiner, Product Manager of the Omega DevCloud with KORE Telematics Inc., discussed the evolving requirements for developers as IoT matures and conducted a live demonstration of how quickly application development can happen when the need to comply wit...
The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – transforming information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. IoE creates new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented opportunities to improve business and government operations, decision making and mission support capabilities.
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems, described how to revolutionize your archit...
MuleSoft has announced the findings of its 2015 Connectivity Benchmark Report on the adoption and business impact of APIs. The findings suggest traditional businesses are quickly evolving into "composable enterprises" built out of hundreds of connected software services, applications and devices. Most are embracing the Internet of Things (IoT) and microservices technologies like Docker. A majority are integrating wearables, like smart watches, and more than half plan to generate revenue with APIs within the next year.
Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Opening Keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Sandy Carter, IBM General Manager Cloud Ecosystem and Developers, and a Social Business Evangelist, d...
In his keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Rodney Rogers, CEO of Virtustream, discussed the evolution of the company from inception to its recent acquisition by EMC – including personal insights, lessons learned (and some WTF moments) along the way. Learn how Virtustream’s unique approach of combining the economics and elasticity of the consumer cloud model with proper performance, application automation and security into a platform became a breakout success with enterprise customers and a natural fit for the EMC Federation.
The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
Discussions about cloud computing are evolving into discussions about enterprise IT in general. As enterprises increasingly migrate toward their own unique clouds, new issues such as the use of containers and microservices emerge to keep things interesting. In this Power Panel at 16th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed the state of cloud computing today, and what enterprise IT professionals need to know about how the latest topics and trends affect their organization.
It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society-changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jason Mondanaro, Director, Product Management at Metanga, discussed how you can plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change the world and it starts with business models and monetization strategies.
Converging digital disruptions is creating a major sea change - Cisco calls this the Internet of Everything (IoE). IoE is the network connection of People, Process, Data and Things, fueled by Cloud, Mobile, Social, Analytics and Security, and it represents a $19Trillion value-at-stake over the next 10 years. In her keynote at @ThingsExpo, Manjula Talreja, VP of Cisco Consulting Services, discussed IoE and the enormous opportunities it provides to public and private firms alike. She will share what businesses must do to thrive in the IoE economy, citing examples from several industry sectors.
There will be 150 billion connected devices by 2020. New digital businesses have already disrupted value chains across every industry. APIs are at the center of the digital business. You need to understand what assets you have that can be exposed digitally, what their digital value chain is, and how to create an effective business model around that value chain to compete in this economy. No enterprise can be complacent and not engage in the digital economy. Learn how to be the disruptor and not the disruptee.
Akana has released Envision, an enhanced API analytics platform that helps enterprises mine critical insights across their digital eco-systems, understand their customers and partners and offer value-added personalized services. “In today’s digital economy, data-driven insights are proving to be a key differentiator for businesses. Understanding the data that is being tunneled through their APIs and how it can be used to optimize their business and operations is of paramount importance,” said Alistair Farquharson, CTO of Akana.
Business as usual for IT is evolving into a "Make or Buy" decision on a service-by-service conversation with input from the LOBs. How does your organization move forward with cloud? In his general session at 16th Cloud Expo, Paul Maravei, Regional Sales Manager, Hybrid Cloud and Managed Services at Cisco, discusses how Cisco and its partners offer a market-leading portfolio and ecosystem of cloud infrastructure and application services that allow you to uniquely and securely combine cloud business applications and services across multiple cloud delivery models.
The enterprise market will drive IoT device adoption over the next five years. In his session at @ThingsExpo, John Greenough, an analyst at BI Intelligence, division of Business Insider, analyzed how companies will adopt IoT products and the associated cost of adopting those products. John Greenough is the lead analyst covering the Internet of Things for BI Intelligence- Business Insider’s paid research service. Numerous IoT companies have cited his analysis of the IoT. Prior to joining BI Intelligence, he worked analyzing bank technology for Corporate Insight and The Clearing House Payment...
"Optimal Design is a technology integration and product development firm that specializes in connecting devices to the cloud," stated Joe Wascow, Co-Founder & CMO of Optimal Design, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CommVault has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. A singular vision – a belief in a better way to address current and future data management needs – guides CommVault in the development of Singular Information Management® solutions for high-performance data protection, universal availability and simplified management of data on complex storage networks. CommVault's exclusive single-platform architecture gives companies unp...
Electric Cloud and Arynga have announced a product integration partnership that will bring Continuous Delivery solutions to the automotive Internet-of-Things (IoT) market. The joint solution will help automotive manufacturers, OEMs and system integrators adopt DevOps automation and Continuous Delivery practices that reduce software build and release cycle times within the complex and specific parameters of embedded and IoT software systems.
"ciqada is a combined platform of hardware modules and server products that lets people take their existing devices or new devices and lets them be accessible over the Internet for their users," noted Geoff Engelstein of ciqada, a division of Mars International, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
Internet of Things is moving from being a hype to a reality. Experts estimate that internet connected cars will grow to 152 million, while over 100 million internet connected wireless light bulbs and lamps will be operational by 2020. These and many other intriguing statistics highlight the importance of Internet powered devices and how market penetration is going to multiply many times over in the next few years.