Click here to close now.




















Welcome!

Linux Containers Authors: Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, AppDynamics Blog, Tom Lounibos, Carmen Gonzalez

Related Topics: Linux Containers

Linux Containers: Article

Trusting Computing on Linux

Building a trusted platform

In an era where everybody is connected to a potentially harmful Internet with an increasing number of complex and distributed applications, controlling what the computers do has become significantly harder. At the core, simple actions (executing software, e-commerce, etc.) rely on trust relationships; what if your computer (or the merchant's) has been compromised and alters your perception of reality? Indeed, at the beginning, Neo did not know there was a Matrix because he trusted everything he saw...

Closer to our world, and without being paranoid, one of the first actions intruders or rootkits take is to replace common commands with fake ones. Is it then possible to guarantee that we'll really execute the code we intended to? How far can you trust the computer of a given merchant not to reveal your credit card number? This is precisely what trusted computing is about: providing the means to know how much a given machine may be trusted.

Actually, the use of chips to enforce security within the lowest layers isn't new; it's existed for many years. However, their high price, difficult integration with commercial software, and high impact on systems' performances has restricted their use to the mainstream industry.

Several major industrials decided to join their efforts and design a compromise that would meet market needs. The idea was to build a trusted platform, including a new security chip, that would be easier to use and with more computational power, but perhaps a little less secure. They first gave birth to the TCPA (Trusted Computing Platform Alliance) in 1999, and then to its successor, TCG (Trusted Computing Group), in 2003.

Trusted Computing Group

The primary goal of the TCG is to provide the industry with vendor-neutral standard specifications for various platforms (PC, PDA, mobile phone, etc.). To do so, they describe a subsystem to integrate onto each platform and that provides protection to a user's computing environment, and information and keys to operating systems or applications. More precisely, TCG's proposed subsystem consists of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) and the TPM Software Stack (TSS).

The TPM is a hardware chip. It provides low-level trusted computing functionalities such as protected storage (making sure encryption keys cannot be retrieved even if the platform is compromised), integrity metrics (detecting compromise), and platform attestation (prove to others that the platform has a given property).

As for the TSS, it's organized as shown in Figure 1:

  • A TPM device driver, typically provided by the TPM manufacturer
  • An abstraction layer to TPM drivers, the TDDL, which makes it possible to develop upper components in the stack independent of the TPM chip
  • A core services layer (TCS) that groups all common services to the software stack, such as event management, key and credentials management, etc.
  • Various TSS Service Providers (TSP) that, for example, offer access to specific APIs such as PKCS#11
To illustrate the possible benefits of using trusted compu-ting, let's describe a simple case where a system administrator needs to secure an employee's laptop access to the corporate network. The employee accesses his or her company's network using a secret key and specific network access software (e.g., a VPN client). The problem is that the employee's laptop is obviously untrusted; it's carried everywhere and unfortunately is the ideal target for viruses or any other malware. If a laptop's corporate network access software and/or the secret key are compromised, this may seriously impact corporate security.

To avoid such a scenario, a possible solution relies on trusted computing. The administrator uses the TPM to seal the secret key with the BIOS, OS, and the network access software. This cryptographically binds the keys to a given software stack, so that only the TPM may unseal the key if and only if the software stack (BIOS, OS, network-access software) has not been compromised. This virtually establishes trust on an untrusted platform.

Linux Support for TCG

In practice, TPMs are already well established on the market, although perhaps not that widely yet. Several chip manufacturers propose TPM chips (e.g., Infineon's SLD 9630 TT or Atmel's AT97SC3201). Intel has developed TPM-integrated boards (D865GRH, D915GEV, and D915GUX desktop boards). TPMs are even sold on a specific desktop or laptop series (IBM ThinkCentre, HP Compaq DC7100, Toshiba Tecra M2, Fujitsu Lifebook S, etc.). The real difficulty in getting your hands on TCG arises later, within the TPM Software Stack. Indeed, mainstream Linux kernels do not natively recognize TPM chips, and solutions to use them are nearly nonexistent at the moment.

With Linux, we are presently only aware of NTRU's TSS and a few research projects listed in Table 1. Most of those are highly experimental, with only limited support of TPM chips and a selected subset of TCG functions. Clearly, this is currently only a developer's or an expert's world; there is no way an end user can benefit from TCG's functionalities without getting into the source code.

TCG and Linux

Actually, trusted computing's first exposure to the public has been quite controversial. Basically, people worried that this technology would scorn privacy or block software interoperability. Others even exposed startling side effects. The reality is probably somewhat more balanced, and we dare to compare trusted computing to a Swiss army knife: it can be extremely useful for getting out of (dangerous?) situations, but obviously it may be lethal.

It's beyond the scope of this article to tackle privacy and TCG issues in more detail, though we invite interested readers to refer to the resources section for further readings.

Whether we want it or not, trusted computing seems to be a part of the future for many commercial systems. Support for TCG is already part of the requirements for some industrial Linux systems. Market perspective looks extremely promising; indeed, there are still several research and development opportunities:

  • At the hardware level, by introducing new trusted hardware on the market (see for instance, Intel's trusted keyboard controller).
  • At the operating system level, with a new "trusted" OS making use of trusted hardware. This would probably consist of a kernel module but with a broader link to the OS.
  • At the application level, with numerous use cases for end-user "trusted" applications, but barely any implementation on Linux yet.
  • In the area of embedded systems - for example, mobile phones, PDAs, or other devices.

Conclusion

Currently, the best way to qualify TCG's penetration in the market is moderate: the TPM chips are already on the market, but their software stack is extremely limited and experimental. Yet, whatever your rationale is - for or against TCG technology - with the widespread propagation of viruses and other malware, and the ever-increasing security needs of the industry, trusted computing seems an extremely promising technology and TPM chips are very likely to be deployed more frequently on systems around us. It would then be extremely positive for the Linux community - and more generally the open source community - to get involved. Indeed, how much and how well TPMs are supported and integrated could become a selection criteria among operating systems in the future.

Resources

  • Yee, B. "Using Secure Coprocessors", PhD Thesis, CMUCS94149, May 1994: http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/yee94using.htm
  • Arnold, T. W., and van Doorn, L. P. "The IBM PCIXCC: A new cryptographic coprocessor for the IBM eServer." IBM Research & Development Journal. Vol. 48, No. 3. May/July 2004.
  • Trusted Computing Group: www.trustedcomputinggroup.org
  • NTRU Core TCG Software Stack (CTSS): www.ntru.com/products/tcg_ss.htm
  • Safford, D. "TCPA Resources": www.research.ibm.com/gsal/tcpa/
  • Sailer, R.; Jaeger, T.; van Doorn, L.; Zheng, X. "TPM based Linux Runtime Attestation": www.research.ibm.com/secure_systems_department/projects/tcglinux/
  • Wild, O., and Marchesini, J. "Enforcer": http://enforcer.sourceforge.net/
  • Sevinc, P.E. "A Software-based TPM Emulator for Linux": www.infsec.ethz.ch/people/psevinc
  • Selhorst, M., and Stueble, C. "Linux Kernel Module for the Infineon Trusted Platform Module SLD 9630 TT": www.prosec.rub.de/tpm/
  • Anderson, R. "Trusted Computing - Frequently Asked Questions", version 1.1. August 2003: www.againsttcpa.com/tcpafaqen.html
  • Schechter, S.E.; Greenstadt, R.A.; and Smith, M.D. "Trusted Computing, Peer to Peer Distribution, and the Economics of Pirated Entertainment." Second Workshop on Economics and Information Society, May 29, 2003: www.eecs.harvard.edu/~stuart/papers/eis03.pdf
  • Carrier Grade Linux Hardware Requirements definition version 3: www.osdl.org/docs/cgl_hw_req_def___v30_draft.pdf
  • Bajikar, S. "Trusted Mobile Keyboard Controller Architecture." Intel Developers Forum. Fall 2003: www.intel.com/idf/us/fall2003/presentations/F03USMOBS147_OS.pdf
  • Wave Systems, Embassy Trust Suite: www.wave.com/products/ets_pro.html
  • Linux Devices. January 22, 2003: www.linuxdevices.com/news/NS9222005703.html
  • Walko, J. "ARM links with Trusted Logic for secure mobile, set tops." July 14, 2004: www.embedded.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=23900682&_loopback=1
  • More Stories By Makan Pourzandi

    Makan Pourzandi received his doctoral degree on parallel computing in 1995 from the University of Lyon, France. He works for Ericsson Research
    Canada in the Open Systems Research Department. His research domains are security, cluster computing, and component-based methods for
    distributed programming. He has more than 7 publications in International conferences with reference committees. Makan has delivered several talks
    at universities, international conferences, and Open Source forums. He is involved in several Open Source projects: Distributed Security
    Infrastructure (disec.sourceforge.net), and a contributer to the
    security requirements of the Open Source Development Lab (OSDL) Carrier Grade Linux (CGL).

    More Stories By Axelle Apvrille

    Axelle Apvrille currently works for Ericsson Research Canada in the Open Systems Research Department. Her
    research interests are cryptography, security protocols and distributed
    security. She received her computer science engineering degree in 1996
    at ENSEIRB, Bordeaux, France.

    Comments (0)

    Share your thoughts on this story.

    Add your comment
    You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

    In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


    @ThingsExpo Stories
    Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Opening Keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Sandy Carter, IBM General Manager Cloud Ecosystem and Developers, and a Social Business Evangelist, d...
    Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems, described how to revolutionize your archit...
    The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
    Discussions about cloud computing are evolving into discussions about enterprise IT in general. As enterprises increasingly migrate toward their own unique clouds, new issues such as the use of containers and microservices emerge to keep things interesting. In this Power Panel at 16th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed the state of cloud computing today, and what enterprise IT professionals need to know about how the latest topics and trends affect their organization.
    For IoT to grow as quickly as analyst firms’ project, a lot is going to fall on developers to quickly bring applications to market. But the lack of a standard development platform threatens to slow growth and make application development more time consuming and costly, much like we’ve seen in the mobile space. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Weiner, Product Manager of the Omega DevCloud with KORE Telematics Inc., discussed the evolving requirements for developers as IoT matures and conducted a live demonstration of how quickly application development can happen when the need to comply wit...
    There will be 150 billion connected devices by 2020. New digital businesses have already disrupted value chains across every industry. APIs are at the center of the digital business. You need to understand what assets you have that can be exposed digitally, what their digital value chain is, and how to create an effective business model around that value chain to compete in this economy. No enterprise can be complacent and not engage in the digital economy. Learn how to be the disruptor and not the disruptee.
    The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – transforming information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. IoE creates new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented opportunities to improve business and government operations, decision making and mission support capabilities.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
    Akana has released Envision, an enhanced API analytics platform that helps enterprises mine critical insights across their digital eco-systems, understand their customers and partners and offer value-added personalized services. “In today’s digital economy, data-driven insights are proving to be a key differentiator for businesses. Understanding the data that is being tunneled through their APIs and how it can be used to optimize their business and operations is of paramount importance,” said Alistair Farquharson, CTO of Akana.
    Business as usual for IT is evolving into a "Make or Buy" decision on a service-by-service conversation with input from the LOBs. How does your organization move forward with cloud? In his general session at 16th Cloud Expo, Paul Maravei, Regional Sales Manager, Hybrid Cloud and Managed Services at Cisco, discusses how Cisco and its partners offer a market-leading portfolio and ecosystem of cloud infrastructure and application services that allow you to uniquely and securely combine cloud business applications and services across multiple cloud delivery models.
    The enterprise market will drive IoT device adoption over the next five years. In his session at @ThingsExpo, John Greenough, an analyst at BI Intelligence, division of Business Insider, analyzed how companies will adopt IoT products and the associated cost of adopting those products. John Greenough is the lead analyst covering the Internet of Things for BI Intelligence- Business Insider’s paid research service. Numerous IoT companies have cited his analysis of the IoT. Prior to joining BI Intelligence, he worked analyzing bank technology for Corporate Insight and The Clearing House Payment...
    It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society-changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jason Mondanaro, Director, Product Management at Metanga, discussed how you can plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change the world and it starts with business models and monetization strategies.
    Converging digital disruptions is creating a major sea change - Cisco calls this the Internet of Everything (IoE). IoE is the network connection of People, Process, Data and Things, fueled by Cloud, Mobile, Social, Analytics and Security, and it represents a $19Trillion value-at-stake over the next 10 years. In her keynote at @ThingsExpo, Manjula Talreja, VP of Cisco Consulting Services, discussed IoE and the enormous opportunities it provides to public and private firms alike. She will share what businesses must do to thrive in the IoE economy, citing examples from several industry sectors.
    In his keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Rodney Rogers, CEO of Virtustream, discussed the evolution of the company from inception to its recent acquisition by EMC – including personal insights, lessons learned (and some WTF moments) along the way. Learn how Virtustream’s unique approach of combining the economics and elasticity of the consumer cloud model with proper performance, application automation and security into a platform became a breakout success with enterprise customers and a natural fit for the EMC Federation.
    "Optimal Design is a technology integration and product development firm that specializes in connecting devices to the cloud," stated Joe Wascow, Co-Founder & CMO of Optimal Design, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that CommVault has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. A singular vision – a belief in a better way to address current and future data management needs – guides CommVault in the development of Singular Information Management® solutions for high-performance data protection, universal availability and simplified management of data on complex storage networks. CommVault's exclusive single-platform architecture gives companies unp...
    Electric Cloud and Arynga have announced a product integration partnership that will bring Continuous Delivery solutions to the automotive Internet-of-Things (IoT) market. The joint solution will help automotive manufacturers, OEMs and system integrators adopt DevOps automation and Continuous Delivery practices that reduce software build and release cycle times within the complex and specific parameters of embedded and IoT software systems.
    "ciqada is a combined platform of hardware modules and server products that lets people take their existing devices or new devices and lets them be accessible over the Internet for their users," noted Geoff Engelstein of ciqada, a division of Mars International, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
    Internet of Things is moving from being a hype to a reality. Experts estimate that internet connected cars will grow to 152 million, while over 100 million internet connected wireless light bulbs and lamps will be operational by 2020. These and many other intriguing statistics highlight the importance of Internet powered devices and how market penetration is going to multiply many times over in the next few years.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Dyn, the worldwide leader in Internet Performance, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Dyn is a cloud-based Internet Performance company. Dyn helps companies monitor, control, and optimize online infrastructure for an exceptional end-user experience. Through a world-class network and unrivaled, objective intelligence into Internet conditions, Dyn ensures traffic gets delivered faster, safer, and more reliably than ever.