Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Linux Containers Authors: Carmen Gonzalez, Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, Sanjeev Sharma, Liz McMillan

Related Topics: Linux Containers

Linux Containers: Article

Trusting Computing on Linux

Building a trusted platform

In an era where everybody is connected to a potentially harmful Internet with an increasing number of complex and distributed applications, controlling what the computers do has become significantly harder. At the core, simple actions (executing software, e-commerce, etc.) rely on trust relationships; what if your computer (or the merchant's) has been compromised and alters your perception of reality? Indeed, at the beginning, Neo did not know there was a Matrix because he trusted everything he saw...

Closer to our world, and without being paranoid, one of the first actions intruders or rootkits take is to replace common commands with fake ones. Is it then possible to guarantee that we'll really execute the code we intended to? How far can you trust the computer of a given merchant not to reveal your credit card number? This is precisely what trusted computing is about: providing the means to know how much a given machine may be trusted.

Actually, the use of chips to enforce security within the lowest layers isn't new; it's existed for many years. However, their high price, difficult integration with commercial software, and high impact on systems' performances has restricted their use to the mainstream industry.

Several major industrials decided to join their efforts and design a compromise that would meet market needs. The idea was to build a trusted platform, including a new security chip, that would be easier to use and with more computational power, but perhaps a little less secure. They first gave birth to the TCPA (Trusted Computing Platform Alliance) in 1999, and then to its successor, TCG (Trusted Computing Group), in 2003.

Trusted Computing Group

The primary goal of the TCG is to provide the industry with vendor-neutral standard specifications for various platforms (PC, PDA, mobile phone, etc.). To do so, they describe a subsystem to integrate onto each platform and that provides protection to a user's computing environment, and information and keys to operating systems or applications. More precisely, TCG's proposed subsystem consists of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) and the TPM Software Stack (TSS).

The TPM is a hardware chip. It provides low-level trusted computing functionalities such as protected storage (making sure encryption keys cannot be retrieved even if the platform is compromised), integrity metrics (detecting compromise), and platform attestation (prove to others that the platform has a given property).

As for the TSS, it's organized as shown in Figure 1:

  • A TPM device driver, typically provided by the TPM manufacturer
  • An abstraction layer to TPM drivers, the TDDL, which makes it possible to develop upper components in the stack independent of the TPM chip
  • A core services layer (TCS) that groups all common services to the software stack, such as event management, key and credentials management, etc.
  • Various TSS Service Providers (TSP) that, for example, offer access to specific APIs such as PKCS#11
To illustrate the possible benefits of using trusted compu-ting, let's describe a simple case where a system administrator needs to secure an employee's laptop access to the corporate network. The employee accesses his or her company's network using a secret key and specific network access software (e.g., a VPN client). The problem is that the employee's laptop is obviously untrusted; it's carried everywhere and unfortunately is the ideal target for viruses or any other malware. If a laptop's corporate network access software and/or the secret key are compromised, this may seriously impact corporate security.

To avoid such a scenario, a possible solution relies on trusted computing. The administrator uses the TPM to seal the secret key with the BIOS, OS, and the network access software. This cryptographically binds the keys to a given software stack, so that only the TPM may unseal the key if and only if the software stack (BIOS, OS, network-access software) has not been compromised. This virtually establishes trust on an untrusted platform.

Linux Support for TCG

In practice, TPMs are already well established on the market, although perhaps not that widely yet. Several chip manufacturers propose TPM chips (e.g., Infineon's SLD 9630 TT or Atmel's AT97SC3201). Intel has developed TPM-integrated boards (D865GRH, D915GEV, and D915GUX desktop boards). TPMs are even sold on a specific desktop or laptop series (IBM ThinkCentre, HP Compaq DC7100, Toshiba Tecra M2, Fujitsu Lifebook S, etc.). The real difficulty in getting your hands on TCG arises later, within the TPM Software Stack. Indeed, mainstream Linux kernels do not natively recognize TPM chips, and solutions to use them are nearly nonexistent at the moment.

With Linux, we are presently only aware of NTRU's TSS and a few research projects listed in Table 1. Most of those are highly experimental, with only limited support of TPM chips and a selected subset of TCG functions. Clearly, this is currently only a developer's or an expert's world; there is no way an end user can benefit from TCG's functionalities without getting into the source code.

TCG and Linux

Actually, trusted computing's first exposure to the public has been quite controversial. Basically, people worried that this technology would scorn privacy or block software interoperability. Others even exposed startling side effects. The reality is probably somewhat more balanced, and we dare to compare trusted computing to a Swiss army knife: it can be extremely useful for getting out of (dangerous?) situations, but obviously it may be lethal.

It's beyond the scope of this article to tackle privacy and TCG issues in more detail, though we invite interested readers to refer to the resources section for further readings.

Whether we want it or not, trusted computing seems to be a part of the future for many commercial systems. Support for TCG is already part of the requirements for some industrial Linux systems. Market perspective looks extremely promising; indeed, there are still several research and development opportunities:

  • At the hardware level, by introducing new trusted hardware on the market (see for instance, Intel's trusted keyboard controller).
  • At the operating system level, with a new "trusted" OS making use of trusted hardware. This would probably consist of a kernel module but with a broader link to the OS.
  • At the application level, with numerous use cases for end-user "trusted" applications, but barely any implementation on Linux yet.
  • In the area of embedded systems - for example, mobile phones, PDAs, or other devices.

Conclusion

Currently, the best way to qualify TCG's penetration in the market is moderate: the TPM chips are already on the market, but their software stack is extremely limited and experimental. Yet, whatever your rationale is - for or against TCG technology - with the widespread propagation of viruses and other malware, and the ever-increasing security needs of the industry, trusted computing seems an extremely promising technology and TPM chips are very likely to be deployed more frequently on systems around us. It would then be extremely positive for the Linux community - and more generally the open source community - to get involved. Indeed, how much and how well TPMs are supported and integrated could become a selection criteria among operating systems in the future.

Resources

  • Yee, B. "Using Secure Coprocessors", PhD Thesis, CMUCS94149, May 1994: http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/yee94using.htm
  • Arnold, T. W., and van Doorn, L. P. "The IBM PCIXCC: A new cryptographic coprocessor for the IBM eServer." IBM Research & Development Journal. Vol. 48, No. 3. May/July 2004.
  • Trusted Computing Group: www.trustedcomputinggroup.org
  • NTRU Core TCG Software Stack (CTSS): www.ntru.com/products/tcg_ss.htm
  • Safford, D. "TCPA Resources": www.research.ibm.com/gsal/tcpa/
  • Sailer, R.; Jaeger, T.; van Doorn, L.; Zheng, X. "TPM based Linux Runtime Attestation": www.research.ibm.com/secure_systems_department/projects/tcglinux/
  • Wild, O., and Marchesini, J. "Enforcer": http://enforcer.sourceforge.net/
  • Sevinc, P.E. "A Software-based TPM Emulator for Linux": www.infsec.ethz.ch/people/psevinc
  • Selhorst, M., and Stueble, C. "Linux Kernel Module for the Infineon Trusted Platform Module SLD 9630 TT": www.prosec.rub.de/tpm/
  • Anderson, R. "Trusted Computing - Frequently Asked Questions", version 1.1. August 2003: www.againsttcpa.com/tcpafaqen.html
  • Schechter, S.E.; Greenstadt, R.A.; and Smith, M.D. "Trusted Computing, Peer to Peer Distribution, and the Economics of Pirated Entertainment." Second Workshop on Economics and Information Society, May 29, 2003: www.eecs.harvard.edu/~stuart/papers/eis03.pdf
  • Carrier Grade Linux Hardware Requirements definition version 3: www.osdl.org/docs/cgl_hw_req_def___v30_draft.pdf
  • Bajikar, S. "Trusted Mobile Keyboard Controller Architecture." Intel Developers Forum. Fall 2003: www.intel.com/idf/us/fall2003/presentations/F03USMOBS147_OS.pdf
  • Wave Systems, Embassy Trust Suite: www.wave.com/products/ets_pro.html
  • Linux Devices. January 22, 2003: www.linuxdevices.com/news/NS9222005703.html
  • Walko, J. "ARM links with Trusted Logic for secure mobile, set tops." July 14, 2004: www.embedded.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=23900682&_loopback=1
  • More Stories By Makan Pourzandi

    Makan Pourzandi received his doctoral degree on parallel computing in 1995 from the University of Lyon, France. He works for Ericsson Research
    Canada in the Open Systems Research Department. His research domains are security, cluster computing, and component-based methods for
    distributed programming. He has more than 7 publications in International conferences with reference committees. Makan has delivered several talks
    at universities, international conferences, and Open Source forums. He is involved in several Open Source projects: Distributed Security
    Infrastructure (disec.sourceforge.net), and a contributer to the
    security requirements of the Open Source Development Lab (OSDL) Carrier Grade Linux (CGL).

    More Stories By Axelle Apvrille

    Axelle Apvrille currently works for Ericsson Research Canada in the Open Systems Research Department. Her
    research interests are cryptography, security protocols and distributed
    security. She received her computer science engineering degree in 1996
    at ENSEIRB, Bordeaux, France.

    Comments (0)

    Share your thoughts on this story.

    Add your comment
    You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

    In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


    @ThingsExpo Stories
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Secure Infrastructure & Services will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Secure Infrastructure & Services (SIAS) is a managed services provider of cloud computing solutions for the IBM Power Systems market. The company helps mid-market firms built on IBM hardware platforms to deploy new levels of reliable and cost-effective computing and high availability solutions, leveraging the cloud and the benefits of Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS...
    The 4th International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 17th International Cloud Expo - to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - announces that its Call for Papers is open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than
    To many people, IoT is a buzzword whose value is not understood. Many people think IoT is all about wearables and home automation. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Kavis, Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Partners, discussed some incredible game-changing use cases and how they are transforming industries like agriculture, manufacturing, health care, and smart cities. He will discuss cool technologies like smart dust, robotics, smart labels, and much more. Prepare to be blown away with a glimpse of the future.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that ProfitBricks, the provider of painless cloud infrastructure, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. ProfitBricks is the IaaS provider that offers a painless cloud experience for all IT users, with no learning curve. ProfitBricks boasts flexible cloud servers and networking, an integrated Data Center Designer tool for visual control over the cloud and the best price/performance value available. ProfitBricks was named one of the coolest Clo...
    17th Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterprises are using some form of XaaS – software, platform, and infrastructure as a service.
    Internet of Things is moving from being a hype to a reality. Experts estimate that internet connected cars will grow to 152 million, while over 100 million internet connected wireless light bulbs and lamps will be operational by 2020. These and many other intriguing statistics highlight the importance of Internet powered devices and how market penetration is going to multiply many times over in the next few years.
    The basic integration architecture, as defined by ESBs, hasn’t changed for more than a decade. Most cloud integration providers still rely on an ESB architecture and their proprietary connectors. As a result, enterprise integration projects suffer from constraints of availability and reliability of these connectors that are not re-usable across other integration vendors. However, the rapid adoption of APIs and almost ubiquitous availability of APIs amongst most SaaS and Cloud applications are rapidly redefining traditional integration approaches and their reliance on proprietary connectors. ...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Dyn, the worldwide leader in Internet Performance, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Dyn is a cloud-based Internet Performance company. Dyn helps companies monitor, control, and optimize online infrastructure for an exceptional end-user experience. Through a world-class network and unrivaled, objective intelligence into Internet conditions, Dyn ensures traffic gets delivered faster, safer, and more reliably than ever.
    "We have a tagline - "Power in the API Economy." What that means is everything that is built in applications and connected applications is done through APIs," explained Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at Akana, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 16th Cloud Expo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
    WebRTC converts the entire network into a ubiquitous communications cloud thereby connecting anytime, anywhere through any point. In his session at WebRTC Summit,, Mark Castleman, EIR at Bell Labs and Head of Future X Labs, will discuss how the transformational nature of communications is achieved through the democratizing force of WebRTC. WebRTC is doing for voice what HTML did for web content.
    Today air travel is a minefield of delays, hassles and customer disappointment. Airlines struggle to revitalize the experience. GE and M2Mi will demonstrate practical examples of how IoT solutions are helping airlines bring back personalization, reduce trip time and improve reliability. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Dr. Sarah Cooper, M2Mi’s VP Business Development and Engineering, will explore the IoT cloud-based platform technologies driving this change including privacy controls, data transparency and integration of real time context wi...
    Buzzword alert: Microservices and IoT at a DevOps conference? What could possibly go wrong? In this Power Panel at DevOps Summit, moderated by Jason Bloomberg, the leading expert on architecting agility for the enterprise and president of Intellyx, panelists peeled away the buzz and discuss the important architectural principles behind implementing IoT solutions for the enterprise. As remote IoT devices and sensors become increasingly intelligent, they become part of our distributed cloud environment, and we must architect and code accordingly. At the very least, you'll have no problem fillin...
    The 17th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. 17th International Cloud Expo, to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, APM, APIs, Microservices, Security, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal today!
    The 5th International DevOps Summit, co-located with 17th International Cloud Expo – being held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the world's largest enterprises – and delivering real results. Among the proven benefits, DevOps is corr...
    The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
    Internet of Things (IoT) will be a hybrid ecosystem of diverse devices and sensors collaborating with operational and enterprise systems to create the next big application. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Bramh Gupta, founder and CEO of robomq.io, and Fred Yatzeck, principal architect leading product development at robomq.io, discussed how choosing the right middleware and integration strategy from the get-go will enable IoT solution developers to adapt and grow with the industry, while at the same time reduce Time to Market (TTM) by using plug and play capabilities offered by a robust IoT ...
    Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems, described how to revolutionize your archit...
    It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society-changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jason Mondanaro, Director, Product Management at Metanga, discussed how you can plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change the world and it starts with business models and monetization strategies.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that BMC will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. BMC delivers software solutions that help IT transform digital enterprises for the ultimate competitive business advantage. BMC has worked with thousands of leading companies to create and deliver powerful IT management services. From mainframe to cloud to mobile, BMC pairs high-speed digital innovation with robust IT industrialization – allowing customers to provide amazing user experiences with optimized IT per...
    There will be 150 billion connected devices by 2020. New digital businesses have already disrupted value chains across every industry. APIs are at the center of the digital business. You need to understand what assets you have that can be exposed digitally, what their digital value chain is, and how to create an effective business model around that value chain to compete in this economy. No enterprise can be complacent and not engage in the digital economy. Learn how to be the disruptor and not the disruptee.