Welcome!

Linux Containers Authors: Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Dana Gardner, Carmen Gonzalez, Yeshim Deniz

Related Topics: Java IoT, Weblogic, Linux Containers

Java IoT: Article

Java Basics: Introduction to Java Threads, Part 2

Internet Portals Like Yahoo, CNN, or Your Bank's Web Site Use Them

In the previous lesson www.sys-con.com/story/?storyid=46096&de=1 I've explained the basics of Java threads. This time we'll talk about using threads for creating a little more advanced programs.

I'm sure each of you have visited some of the major Internet portals like Yahoo, CNN or your bank's Web site. These portals usually display different types of information like News, Weather, Stock Market quotes, etc. Each of these info pieces appears on the screen instantaneously even though it's coming to the portal from different servers, i.e. the News server may be located in Washington and the stock market data come from New York (see Figure 1 below).

Let's say it takes 4 seconds to receive the news and 3 seconds to get the stock prices. If your program will do it in a sequence, it'll take you 7 seconds total, but why not do this in parallel and reduce the total time to 4 seconds? After all these servers have their own processors that can work in independently from each other! We are not going to discuss Web technologies here, but I'll show you how to spawn parallel processing using multi-threading, collect the returned data and display the results to the user in one shot.

Our program will consist of the following classes:

  • MyPortal that will spawn the threads and collect their returns in an ArrayList of strings. It'll print entire content of this array when all threads complete.
  • NewsServer that will run for 4 seconds and return a message "We have good and bad news";
  • StockServer that will run for 3 seconds and return a message "The stock market is on the rise!".
These threads do not contain any code that actually gets some news or market data. My goal is to show you how threads can communicate with other classes, and after this part works, it wont be difficult to replace the line that prints a static message with a method call that actually connects to the Internet and gets the data as it was explained in the lesson on getting data from the Internet:.

The class in Listing 1 creates and starts two threads (news and stocks) and goes to sleep for 10 seconds just to keep the program alive for a while. Please note that the class MyPortal also passes to each thread a reference to its instance so the threads know were to return the results. After each thread completes, it returns the result to MyPortal by calling its method submitResult(). Each of the resulting strings is being added to the ArrayList dataToDisplay, and when its size grows to two elements MyPortal prints the content of content the collection dataToDisplay. A little later I'll explain why such use of an ArrayList may not be the best solution for this example.

Listing 1. The source code of the class MyPortal


import java.util.ArrayList;
public class MyPortal {
	ArrayList dataToDisplay = new ArrayList();
    public static void main(String args[]){
    	MyPortal mp =new MyPortal();
    	// Spawn the threads and pass them the referennce
    	// to the instance of MyPortal
    	NewsServer myNews = new NewsServer(mp);
    	Thread newsThread = new Thread(myNews);

    	StockServer myStocks = new StockServer(mp);
    	Thread stockThread = new Thread(myStocks);

    	//Start the threads
    	newsThread.start();
    	stockThread.start();

    	try {
    		System.out.println("MyPortal is sleeping...!");
			Thread.sleep(10000); // wait for 10 sec 
		} catch (InterruptedException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}

		System.out.println("Good bye!");
	}

    // Add the data returned by a thread to collection
    public void submitResult(String data){
    	dataToDisplay.add(data);

    	// Print the data if both threads have submitted the data
    	// (a buggy version)
    	if (dataToDisplay.size()==2){
        	System.out.println(dataToDisplay);
    	}
    }
}

The output of this program looks as follows:

MyPortal is sleeping...
[The stock market is on the rise!, We have good and bad news]
Good bye!

The first line will be printed almost immediately, the second line in 4 seconds and the third one in 10 seconds.

Listing 2. The source code of the class StockServer


public class StockServer implements Runnable {
    MyPortal papa;
    // Constructor
    StockServer(MyPortal parent){
       	papa=parent;
    }

    public void run() {
	// Sleep for 3 seconds to emulate some processing
	// and return a string with the market data to the parent
 	try {
		Thread.sleep(3000);
		papa.submitResult("The stock market is on the rise!");
	} catch (InterruptedException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
	}
    }
}

Listing 3. The source code of the class NewsServer


public class NewsServer implements Runnable {
    MyPortal papa;

    // Constructor
    NewsServer(MyPortal parent){
       	papa=parent;
    }

	public void run() {
	// Sleep for 4 seconds to emulate some processing
	// and return a string with the news to the parent

		try {
			Thread.sleep(4000);
			papa.submitResult("We have  good and bad news");
		} catch (InterruptedException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}
}

The thread classes from Listing 2 and Listing 3 store the references to the parent class MyPortal in the variable papa. Each of the threads just sleeps for a specified number of seconds, wakes up and passes an appropriate text to papa.

Please note, that even on a single processor's machine the total execution time of our example is just a little more than 4 seconds. The reason is that our threads where "sleeping in parallel" and did not compete for the processor's time. But if you replace the sleeping part with a loop that performs some calculations, the timing will be different on a single processor machine: the program will run about 7 seconds. If you have a dual processor machine, you'll cut the processing time to 4 seconds again.

Thread Synchronization. A Race Condition.

When you write a multithreaded application you should consider possibility of a so-called race condition. This is a situation when you may get unpredictable results because multiple threads access a resource (i.e. a variable) at the same time. In our example two threads are calling the same method submitResult() which in turn accesses the variable dataToDisplay to add some data to it and check the size of this collection. Imagine that two or more threads finish their work at the same time. Let's look at a possible sequence of events:

  1. The NewsServer calls the method submitResult(). The size of dataToDisplay is 0.
  2. The StockServer calls the method submitResult() a split second later. The size of dataToDisplay is 0.
  3. The NewsServer grabs a zero-element dataToDisplay and starts adding its string there as a first element.
  4. The StockServer grabs a zero-element dataToDisplay (because the NewsServer has not finished adding its first the element yet) and starts adding its string there as a first element.
  5. After both threads are done, the dataToDisplay may wind up with having one element because the first thread's string has been overwritten by the second one. In this is the case, the size of the dataToDisplay will remain one and MyPortal will never print the news and stock data.
Since the probability of this situation is really small, your program may work properly for years and all of a sudden produce unexpected results. Bugs like this one are not easy to discover.

To avoid race conditions, the code that needs to access a "sensitive" variable must be locked (become unavailable for other threads) for the time when one thread works with it. When the first thread completes, the lock is released and another thread can get a hold of this variable/resource. You can arrange such locking either by using a Java keyword synchronized, or by using Java objects that are internally synchronized.

In our portal example, you can simply use the class Vector instead of ArrayList:

Vector dataToDisplay = new Vector();

Vector objects are internally synchronized in Java, and the second thread won't be able to add a string to the dataToDisplay collection until the first thread is done. Obviously, there is a price to pay for this convenience: synchronized objects are a little bit slower than non-synchronized ones.

The other solution is to put an explicit lock for a piece of code that must be completed without any interruption by other threads. For example, if you'll add the keyword synchronized to the signature of the method submitResult(), the second thread will not be able to call this method, if the first one is still executing it:

public synchronized void submitResult(String data){?}

You can also say that a lock is placed on the entire method submitResult().

You should try to minimize the locking time to avoid slowing down your programs. Java allows you to synchronize just a small portion of the code, which is more preferable than synchronizing an entire method.:


    public void submitResult(String data){
 
    	synchronized (this){
    	  dataToDisplay.add(data);
    	}

    	if (dataToDisplay.size()==2){
        	System.out.println(dataToDisplay);
    	}
    }

When a synchronized block is executed, the object in parenthesis is locked and cannot be used by any other thread until the lock is released.

Each Java thread has its own memory and the JVM copies there variables from the main program memory. The keyword synchronize means to synch up the content of the main and thread's portions of memory. This ensures that each thread works with the most current value of the resource (in our case its dataToDisplay).

If you spot a group of Java programmers in a bar, after a couple of beers they may start using some mysterious words: monitor and mutex.

A monitor is just a piece of a synchronized code. We can say that one of our threads can enter a monitor and safely modify the variable dataToDisplay. While the first thread is working, another thread(s) may start waiting for this monitor.

Mutex means mutually exclusive, and this term also refers to the fact that threads may take turns accessing some program variable(s).

In this lesson you've learned one of the ways of treating more than one thread as a group, but this is not the only way. Java has a class java.lang.ThreadGroup that allows you to create and start a group of threads, control the threads within the group and check which threads are still active. You may also consider the method join() of the class Thread if one thread needs to wait for completion of another.

Threads can communicate with other Java objects using special methods wait(), notify() and notifyAll(), but this is going to be a topic of another lesson. Meanwhile, you can read more about threads in the Java Tutorial over here: http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/essential/threads/

More Stories By Yakov Fain

Yakov Fain is a Java Champion and a co-founder of the IT consultancy Farata Systems and the product company SuranceBay. He wrote a thousand blogs (http://yakovfain.com) and several books about software development. Yakov authored and co-authored such books as "Angular 2 Development with TypeScript", "Java 24-Hour Trainer", and "Enterprise Web Development". His Twitter tag is @yfain

Comments (3) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
Slava Pestov 02/18/05 07:57:05 PM EST

Yakov, your last threads example has a race condition.

Consider this:

thread 1 executes: synchronized (this){ dataToDisplay.add(data); }.

then thread 2 executes: synchronized (this){ dataToDisplay.add(data); }.

then thread 1 executes: if (dataToDisplay.size()==2){ System.out.println(dataToDisplay); }

then thread 2 executes: if (dataToDisplay.size()==2){ System.out.println(dataToDisplay); }

That last System.out.println(dataToDisplay); executes twice, which is not what you intended.

Yakov Fain 02/04/05 11:41:26 AM EST

Yes, J2EE spec does not recommend it, but if you do it right everything works fine. Here's how this could be done

To control threads in a J2EE container use a thread pool (it's a singleton) and get threads from there. If you use J2SE 5.0, use the package java.util.concurrent (in particular, ThreadPoolExecutor). In J2SE 1.4 and below use an excellent concurrent package created by Doug Lea.

Disclaimer: It's just my personal opinion based on my prior experience with a pretty serious financial application. But I do not recommend you to violate J2EE spec.

Feldhacker 02/04/05 08:35:41 AM EST

Is a J2EE version of this example available? Since J2EE forbids explicit thread management, how would this be done on a web server?

@ThingsExpo Stories
Unsecured IoT devices were used to launch crippling DDOS attacks in October 2016, targeting services such as Twitter, Spotify, and GitHub. Subsequent testimony to Congress about potential attacks on office buildings, schools, and hospitals raised the possibility for the IoT to harm and even kill people. What should be done? Does the government need to intervene? This panel at @ThingExpo New York brings together leading IoT and security experts to discuss this very serious topic.
It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his Day 2 Keynote at @ThingsExpo, Henrik Kenani Dahlgren, Portfolio Marketing Manager at Ericsson, discussed how to plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change the...
The buzz continues for cloud, data analytics and the Internet of Things (IoT) and their collective impact across all industries. But a new conversation is emerging - how do companies use industry disruption and technology enablers to lead in markets undergoing change, uncertainty and ambiguity? Organizations of all sizes need to evolve and transform, often under massive pressure, as industry lines blur and merge and traditional business models are assaulted and turned upside down. In this new da...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitrons Solutions will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Hitrons Solutions Inc. is distributor in the North American market for unique products and services of small and medium-size businesses, including cloud services and solutions, SEO marketing platforms, and mobile applications.
“We're a global managed hosting provider. Our core customer set is a U.S.-based customer that is looking to go global,” explained Adam Rogers, Managing Director at ANEXIA, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
WebRTC services have already permeated corporate communications in the form of videoconferencing solutions. However, WebRTC has the potential of going beyond and catalyzing a new class of services providing more than calls with capabilities such as mass-scale real-time media broadcasting, enriched and augmented video, person-to-machine and machine-to-machine communications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Luis Lopez, CEO of Kurento, introduced the technologies required for implementing these idea...
@GonzalezCarmen has been ranked the Number One Influencer and @ThingsExpo has been named the Number One Brand in the “M2M 2016: Top 100 Influencers and Brands” by Onalytica. Onalytica analyzed tweets over the last 6 months mentioning the keywords M2M OR “Machine to Machine.” They then identified the top 100 most influential brands and individuals leading the discussion on Twitter.
In an era of historic innovation fueled by unprecedented access to data and technology, the low cost and risk of entering new markets has leveled the playing field for business. Today, any ambitious innovator can easily introduce a new application or product that can reinvent business models and transform the client experience. In their Day 2 Keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Mercer Rowe, IBM Vice President of Strategic Alliances, and Raejeanne Skillern, Intel Vice President of Data Center Group and G...
Financial Technology has become a topic of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 20th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York, June 6-8, 2017, will find fresh new content in a new track called FinTech.
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Manufacturers are embracing the Industrial Internet the same way consumers are leveraging Fitbits – to improve overall health and wellness. Both can provide consistent measurement, visibility, and suggest performance improvements customized to help reach goals. Fitbit users can view real-time data and make adjustments to increase their activity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mark Bernardo Professional Services Leader, Americas, at GE Digital, discussed how leveraging the Industrial Internet and...
SYS-CON Events announced today that delaPlex will exhibit at SYS-CON's @CloudExpo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. delaPlex pioneered Software Development as a Service (SDaaS), which provides scalable resources to build, test, and deploy software. It’s a fast and more reliable way to develop a new product or expand your in-house team.
Web Real-Time Communication APIs have quickly revolutionized what browsers are capable of. In addition to video and audio streams, we can now bi-directionally send arbitrary data over WebRTC's PeerConnection Data Channels. With the advent of Progressive Web Apps and new hardware APIs such as WebBluetooh and WebUSB, we can finally enable users to stitch together the Internet of Things directly from their browsers while communicating privately and securely in a decentralized way.
"Matrix is an ambitious open standard and implementation that's set up to break down the fragmentation problems that exist in IP messaging and VoIP communication," explained John Woolf, Technical Evangelist at Matrix, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Web Real-Time Communication APIs have quickly revolutionized what browsers are capable of. In addition to video and audio streams, we can now bi-directionally send arbitrary data over WebRTC's PeerConnection Data Channels. With the advent of Progressive Web Apps and new hardware APIs such as WebBluetooh and WebUSB, we can finally enable users to stitch together the Internet of Things directly from their browsers while communicating privately and securely in a decentralized way.
The explosion of new web/cloud/IoT-based applications and the data they generate are transforming our world right before our eyes. In this rush to adopt these new technologies, organizations are often ignoring fundamental questions concerning who owns the data and failing to ask for permission to conduct invasive surveillance of their customers. Organizations that are not transparent about how their systems gather data telemetry without offering shared data ownership risk product rejection, regu...
The security needs of IoT environments require a strong, proven approach to maintain security, trust and privacy in their ecosystem. Assurance and protection of device identity, secure data encryption and authentication are the key security challenges organizations are trying to address when integrating IoT devices. This holds true for IoT applications in a wide range of industries, for example, healthcare, consumer devices, and manufacturing. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lancen LaChance, vic...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
SYS-CON Media announced today that @WebRTCSummit Blog, the largest WebRTC resource in the world, has been launched. @WebRTCSummit Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @WebRTCSummit Blog can be bookmarked ▸ Here @WebRTCSummit conference site can be bookmarked ▸ Here
In his keynote at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Director of IoT Engineering at Citrix and co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, focused on building an IoT platform and company. He provided a behind-the-scenes look at Octoblu’s platform, business, and pivots along the way (including the Citrix acquisition of Octoblu).