Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Linux Authors: Liz McMillan, Roger Strukhoff, Carmen Gonzalez, Tim Hinds, Sean Dwyer

Related Topics: Linux

Linux: Blog Post

Create Linux User Login Monitor on Monitis

Monitis provides the ability to monitor almost any operation on your server

Monitis provides the ability to monitor almost any operation on your server.  Using simple Linux tools and scripts you are able to monitor each time a user logs into the server and capture various information, including username, host address and login service.  Using pam_script and bash scripts, you are able to transmit information to a Custom Monitor with this information.

API Access

The first thing you will need in order to create this monitor is the Monitis API Key and Secret Key.  The API Key is a alphanumeric code that allows you to access the Monitis API url’s and transmit or receive data about your Monitis services.  The Secret Key is an alphanumeric code that allows you to digitally sign your information to ensure that only you can transmit data to your Monitis account.  Your API Key may be disclosed to anyone, but your Secret Key must be maintained private and should not be shared nor transmitted.  To obtain your Monitis API Key and Secret Key, log into your account and from the top menu bar, go to Tools then API then API Key, it will display both your API Key and your Secret Key.

Now let’s test your API access.  You should be able to connect and get an Auth Token:

curl 'http://www.monitis.com/api?action=authToken&apikey=[API Key]&secretkey=[Secret Key]&version=2'

In the above command you should replace [API Key] and [Secret Key] with your API Key and Secret Key.  We are using curl in order to connect to http://www.monitis.com and access the API to get a Auth Token.  The return value is json and sends back something similar to:

{"authToken":"3TVQN32TIP1DN71OB4GOML1D7N"}

Where the alphanumeric code will be your Auth Token.  You can use your Auth Token to validate against the API later.   However sending your Secret Key is not extremely secure, others could possibly  obtain your Secret Key this way.  The more secure method of authenticating is to send your data using POST instead of GET and using a Base64-encoded RFC 2104-compliant HMAC signature to sign the post data.  The signature is sent in the checksum parameter of the POST data.  To calculate the checksum you must follow these rules:
  1. sort all parameters alphabetically by name (excluding the checksum parameter)
  2. concat all parameter names and values like this: name1value1name2value2…
  3. create Base64-encoded RFC 2104-compliant HMAC signature using Secret Key

The final rule can be calculated using openssl:

echo -en “name1value1name2value2” | openssl dgst -sha1 -hmac [Secret Key] -binary | openssl enc -base64

Creating a Custom Monitor

In order to create a custom monitor, you must send a POST request to the API.  This POST request must contain several parameters: action, name, resultsParams, and tag (refer to http://monitis.com/api/api.html#addCustomMonitor for specifications).  We will use the following specifications for the params:

  • action=addMonitor
  • name=Login Monitor
  • resultsParam=user_login:Login Name:logins:3;host:Host Address:hostaddress:3;srv:Service:service:3
  • tag=loginMonitor

There is other necessary information in order to communicate with the API:

  • apikey=[API Key]
  • timestamp=[Current UTC time]
  • version=2
In order to create our new monitor called Login Monitor we would post this data plus a checksum to http://monitis.com/customMonitorApi which is the Custom Monitor API url.  Here is a simple script that will accomplish this:

#!/bin/bash
# create a Custom Monitor for Monitis
# Be sure to modify the API Key and Secret Key
ACTION="addMonitor"
APIKEY="[API Key]"
NAME="login monitor"
RESULTPARAMS="user_login:Login Name:logins:3;host:Host Address:hostaddress:3;srv:Service:service:3"
TAG="loginMonitor"
TIMESTAMP=`date -u +"%F %T"`
VERSION="2"
SECRETKEY="[Secret Key]"
URL="http://monitis.com/customMonitorApi"

# Create Checksum
CHECKSUM_STR="action"$ACTION"apikey"$APIKEY"name"$NAME"resultParams"$RESULTPARAMS"tag"$ TAG"timestamp"$TIMESTAMP"version"$VERSION
CHECKSUM=$(echo -en $CHECKSUM_STR | openssl dgst -sha1 -hmac $SECRETKEY -binary | openssl enc -base64 )

# Post Data to API
POSTDATA="--data-urlencode \"action="$ACTION"\" --data-urlencode \"apikey="$APIKEY"\" --data-urlencode \"name="$NAME"\" --data-urlencode \"resultParams="$RESULTPARAMS"\" --data-urlencode \"tag="$TAG"\" --data-urlencode \"timestamp=$TIMESTAMP\" --data-urlencode \"version="$VERSION"\" --data-urlencode \"checksum="$CHECKSUM"\""

eval "curl ${POSTDATA} $URL"

Save the above script into a file called monitis_create_monitor.sh, be sure not to change the order of the variables in the checksum calculation as they must be in alphabetical order.  Ensure to make this file executable:

chmod 755 monitis_create_monitor.sh

Now run it:
./monitis_create_monitor.sh

The output should look similar to this:

{"status":"ok","data":305}

This is showing us that the monitor was successfully created and that the id of the resulting monitor is 305.  If you go to your Monitis account now, you will be able to access this monitor.  From the top level menu, go to Monitors then Manage Monitors and then Custom Monitors.  Here you should find the Login Monitor.  Click the check box next to the title and then click Add to Window.  A window will pop up below the Custom Monitors dialog box.  Close the Custom Monitors dialog box and you will see your new monitor there.  But no data has been sent to it, so it is not that interesting.

Sending Data to Custom Monitor

In order to send data to your Custom Monitor, you must provide the action, monitorId, checktime, and results (refer to http://monitis.com/api/api.html#addCustomMonitorResult for specifications).  The action is addResult, the monitorId is the id that was returned to us in the previous example (If you forgot the id, don’t worry we will get it back), the checktime is the timestamp of the results data, and the results is a string of the parameters and values in this format: name1value1;name2value2

The following script will send data to your Custom Monitor:

# add result to Custom Monitor for Monitis

#!/bin/bash
usage()
{
cat << EOF
usage: $0 options

This script will add results to a Custom Monitis Monitor.

OPTIONS:
-h Show this message
-a api key
-s secret key
-m monitor tag
-i monitor id
-t timestamp (defaults to utc now)
-r results name:value[;name2:value2...]
EOF
}

APIKEY=
VERSION="2"
SECRETKEY=
URL="http://monitis.com/customMonitorApi"
OUTPUT="xml"
MONITOR=
ID=
CHECKTIME=`date -u +"%s"000`
TIMESTAMP=`date -u +"%F %T"`
RESULTS=
SESSIONACTION=

while getopts "ha:s:m:i:t:r:s:" OPTION
do
case $OPTION in

h)
usage
exit 1
;;
a)
APIKEY=$OPTARG
;;
s)
SECRETKEY=$OPTARG
;;
m)
MONITOR=$OPTARG
;;
i)
ID=$OPTARG
;;
t)
CHECKTIME=$OPTARG
;;
r)
RESULTS=$OPTARG
;;
esac
done

if [[ -z $APIKEY ]] || [[ -z $SECRETKEY ]] || [[ -z $MONITOR$ID ]] || [[ -z $RESULTS ]] || [[ -z $CHECKTIME ]]
then
usage
exit 1
fi

# Get id of monitor if not provided
if [[ -z $ID ]]
then
XMLID=$(curl -s "$URL?apikey=$APIKEY&output=$OUTPUT&version=$VERSION&action=getMonitors&tag=$MONITOR" | xpath -q -e /monitors/monitor/id)
ID=${XMLID//[^0-9]/}
fi

# Add monitor result
ACTION="addResult"
# Create Checksum
CHECKSUM_STR="action"$ACTION"apikey"$APIKEY"checktime"$CHECKTIME"monitorId"$ID"results"$ RESULTS"timestamp"$TIMESTAMP"version"$VERSION
CHECKSUM=$(echo -en $CHECKSUM_STR | openssl dgst -sha1 -hmac $SECRETKEY -binary | openssl enc -base64 )
# Post Data to API

POSTDATA="--data-urlencode \"action="$ACTION"\" --data-urlencode \"apikey="$APIKEY"\" --data-urlencode \"checktime="$CHECKTIME"\" --data-urlencode \"monitorId="$ID"\" --data-urlencode \"results="$RESULTS"\" --data-urlencode \"timestamp=$TIMESTAMP\" --data-urlencode \"version="$VERSION"\" --data-urlencode \"checksum="$CHECKSUM"\""

eval "curl ${POSTDATA} $URL"

Save this file to monitis_add_result.sh and make executable.  You can run it with no parameters to get a help menu, that should be self-explanatory.  You can either provide the API Key and Secret Key on the command-line or fill in the script to contain it.  The script will provide you with the monitorId if you forget yours, but you will have to know the tag name you gave to your Custom Monitor when you created it.  Therefore, either your tag or your monitorId is required to run this script.

Capturing Information on Login

Now that we have a script to send data to the Custom Monitor, we need to have data to send.  This script could easily be run from .bashrc or /etc/bashrc – and that would work fine, if we knew that no user would be deleting their .bashrc.  Since we cannot guarantee that, we will use PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) to control how and when we send information to the Custom Monitor.  Since no user without root access will be able to alter PAM, this is a secure way to guarantee login information.  Also since sshd, sftp, ftp, and most other programs utilize PAM for authentication, this will monitor all logins to the server, not just shell logins.

PAM offers many options and modules, we will be utilizing a module called pam_script.  pam_script allows you to execute a script on session open, session close, and/or on auth.  You must download and install pam_script first:

wget 'http://freshmeat.net/urls/47ddad89e38001dbe0dc50424e36987b' -O libpam-script.tar.gz
tar -xzvf libpam-script.tar.gz
cd libpam-script-x.x.x #x.x.x is the version that you just download, apparent from tar output
make
sudo cp pam_script.so /lib/security/
sudo chown root:root /lib/security/pam_script.so
sudo chmod 755 /lib/security/pam_script.so

pam_script is now installed, but not configured.  There are three files associated with pam_script, /etc/security/onsessionopen /etc/security/onsessionclose /etc/security/onauth  The first two files will work on a session and the last will work for a successful auth.  Since we want to monitor successful auths, we will create the onauth file:

#!/bin/sh
# onauth for Monitis Custom Login Monitor
USER=$1
SERVICE=$2
HOST=$PAM_RHOST

/etc/security/monitis_add_data.sh -m loginMonitor -r "user_login:$USER;host:$HOST;srv:$SERVICE"

This script will require that you move the monitis_add_data.sh script to /etc/security and make it and the onauth script executable by root and owned by root:

sudo mv monitis_add_data.sh /etc/security
sudo chmod 700 /etc/security/monitis_add_data.sh
sudo chown root:root /etc/security/monitis_add_data.sh
sudo chmod 700 /etc/security/onauth
sudo chown root:root /etc/security/onauth

Now we need to set PAM to utilize the pam_script module.  Depending on your system this will vary, but you need to edit the /etc/pam.d/common-auth file or something similar on your system.  You should add the following line:

# require the scripts to run at auth
auth required   pam_script.so  runas=root expose=rhost

Here we are telling module to run as root and to expose the rhost variable, which will contain the remote host information that we utilize in the above script with the $PAM_RHOST variable

Testing the Monitor

Now we have a setup that will log all usernames, remote hosts, and service that they logged in from to our Custom Monitor.  Give it a try, ssh to your machine several times.  You will see the values appear in your account’s Custom Monitor.

 

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Hovhannes Avoyan

Hovhannes Avoyan is the CEO of Monitis, Inc., a provider of on-demand systems management and monitoring software to 50,000 users spanning small businesses and Fortune 500 companies.

Prior to Monitis, he served as General Manager and Director of Development at prominent web portal Lycos Europe, where he grew the Lycos Armenia group from 30 people to over 200, making it the company's largest development center. Prior to Lycos, Avoyan was VP of Technology at Brience, Inc. (based in San Francisco and acquired by Syniverse), which delivered mobile internet content solutions to companies like Cisco, Ingram Micro, Washington Mutual, Wyndham Hotels , T-Mobile , and CNN. Prior to that, he served as the founder and CEO of CEDIT ltd., which was acquired by Brience. A 24 year veteran of the software industry, he also runs Sourcio cjsc, an IT consulting company and startup incubator specializing in web 2.0 products and open-source technologies.

Hovhannes is a senior lecturer at the American Univeristy of Armenia and has been a visiting lecturer at San Francisco State University. He is a graduate of Bertelsmann University.

@ThingsExpo Stories
Wearable devices have come of age. The primary applications of wearables so far have been "the Quantified Self" or the tracking of one's fitness and health status. We propose the evolution of wearables into social and emotional communication devices. Our BE(tm) sensor uses light to visualize the skin conductance response. Our sensors are very inexpensive and can be massively distributed to audiences or groups of any size, in order to gauge reactions to performances, video, or any kind of presentation. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Jocelyn Scheirer, CEO & Founder of Bionolux, will discuss ho...
The explosion of connected devices / sensors is creating an ever-expanding set of new and valuable data. In parallel the emerging capability of Big Data technologies to store, access, analyze, and react to this data is producing changes in business models under the umbrella of the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular within the Insurance industry, IoT appears positioned to enable deep changes by altering relationships between insurers, distributors, and the insured. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Sick, a Senior Manager and Big Data Architect within Ernst and Young's Financial Servi...
The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – transforming information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. IoE creates new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented opportunities to improve business and government operations, decision making and mission support capabilities. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Gary Hall, Chief Technology Officer, Federal Defense at Cisco Systems, will break down the core capabilities of IoT in multiple settings and expand upon IoE for bo...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Vitria Technology, Inc. will exhibit at SYS-CON’s @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Vitria will showcase the company’s new IoT Analytics Platform through live demonstrations at booth #330. Vitria’s IoT Analytics Platform, fully integrated and powered by an operational intelligence engine, enables customers to rapidly build and operationalize advanced analytics to deliver timely business outcomes for use cases across the industrial, enterprise, and consumer segments.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is causing data centers to become radically decentralized and atomized within a new paradigm known as “fog computing.” To support IoT applications, such as connected cars and smart grids, data centers' core functions will be decentralized out to the network's edges and endpoints (aka “fogs”). As this trend takes hold, Big Data analytics platforms will focus on high-volume log analysis (aka “logs”) and rely heavily on cognitive-computing algorithms (aka “cogs”) to make sense of it all.
SYS-CON Events announced today that GENBAND, a leading developer of real time communications software solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's WebRTC Summit, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The GENBAND team will be on hand to demonstrate their newest product, Kandy. Kandy is a communications Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) that enables companies to seamlessly integrate more human communications into their Web and mobile applications - creating more engaging experiences for their customers and boosting collaboration and productiv...
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, shared some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, a...
The industrial software market has treated data with the mentality of “collect everything now, worry about how to use it later.” We now find ourselves buried in data, with the pervasive connectivity of the (Industrial) Internet of Things only piling on more numbers. There’s too much data and not enough information. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Bob Gates, Global Marketing Director, GE’s Intelligent Platforms business, to discuss how realizing the power of IoT, software developers are now focused on understanding how industrial data can create intelligence for industrial operations. Imagine ...
The explosion of connected devices / sensors is creating an ever-expanding set of new and valuable data. In parallel the emerging capability of Big Data technologies to store, access, analyze, and react to this data is producing changes in business models under the umbrella of the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular within the Insurance industry, IoT appears positioned to enable deep changes by altering relationships between insurers, distributors, and the insured. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Sick, a Senior Manager and Big Data Architect within Ernst and Young's Financial Servi...
One of the biggest impacts of the Internet of Things is and will continue to be on data; specifically data volume, management and usage. Companies are scrambling to adapt to this new and unpredictable data reality with legacy infrastructure that cannot handle the speed and volume of data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and president of Infobright, will discuss how companies need to rethink their data infrastructure to participate in the IoT, including: Data storage: Understanding the kinds of data: structured, unstructured, big/small? Analytics: What kinds and how responsiv...
The 3rd International @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo - to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY - is now accepting submissions to demo smart cars on the Expo Floor. Smart car sponsorship benefits include general brand exposure and increasing engagement with the developer ecosystem.
Operational Hadoop and the Lambda Architecture for Streaming Data Apache Hadoop is emerging as a distributed platform for handling large and fast incoming streams of data. Predictive maintenance, supply chain optimization, and Internet-of-Things analysis are examples where Hadoop provides the scalable storage, processing, and analytics platform to gain meaningful insights from granular data that is typically only valuable from a large-scale, aggregate view. One architecture useful for capturing and analyzing streaming data is the Lambda Architecture, representing a model of how to analyze rea...
Since 2008 and for the first time in history, more than half of humans live in urban areas, urging cities to become “smart.” Today, cities can leverage the wide availability of smartphones combined with new technologies such as Beacons or NFC to connect their urban furniture and environment to create citizen-first services that improve transportation, way-finding and information delivery. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Laetitia Gazel-Anthoine, CEO of Connecthings, will focus on successful use cases.
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Open Data Centers (ODC), a carrier-neutral colocation provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Open Data Centers is a carrier-neutral data center operator in New Jersey and New York City offering alternative connectivity options for carriers, service providers and enterprise customers.
When it comes to the Internet of Things, hooking up will get you only so far. If you want customers to commit, you need to go beyond simply connecting products. You need to use the devices themselves to transform how you engage with every customer and how you manage the entire product lifecycle. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sean Lorenz, Technical Product Manager for Xively at LogMeIn, will show how “product relationship management” can help you leverage your connected devices and the data they generate about customer usage and product performance to deliver extremely compelling and reliabl...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place June 9-11, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place November 3–5, 2015 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SoftLayer operates a global cloud infrastructure platform built for Internet scale. With a global footprint of data centers and network points of presence, SoftLayer provides infrastructure as a service to leading-edge customers ranging from ...
There’s Big Data, then there’s really Big Data from the Internet of Things. IoT is evolving to include many data possibilities like new types of event, log and network data. The volumes are enormous, generating tens of billions of logs per day, which raise data challenges. Early IoT deployments are relying heavily on both the cloud and managed service providers to navigate these challenges. Learn about IoT, Big Data and deployments processing massive data volumes from wearables, utilities and other machines.
The true value of the Internet of Things (IoT) lies not just in the data, but through the services that protect the data, perform the analysis and present findings in a usable way. With many IoT elements rooted in traditional IT components, Big Data and IoT isn’t just a play for enterprise. In fact, the IoT presents SMBs with the prospect of launching entirely new activities and exploring innovative areas. CompTIA research identifies several areas where IoT is expected to have the greatest impact.